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Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment. Erik Vermulen MSHA, District 9 Coal Safety and Health 303-231-5586. Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment. Introduction Occurrence in Mines, Scenarios Detection Range of Health Effects Emergency Actions Action Levels. Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment.

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hydrogen sulfide hazard assessment

Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Erik Vermulen

MSHA, District 9

Coal Safety and Health

303-231-5586

District 9 Coal Health

hydrogen sulfide hazard assessment2
Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Introduction

  • Occurrence in Mines, Scenarios
  • Detection
  • Range of Health Effects
  • Emergency Actions
  • Action Levels

District 9 Coal Health

hydrogen sulfide hazard assessment3
Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Occurrence in Mines, Scenarios

  • Generated from reduced biomass (coal, natural gas, garbage), Geochemical sources in sediments, human metabolism
  • Released from pockets in coal, natural gas vents, supersaturated water
  • May be wide spread or localized; constant or in pockets of varying concentration

District 9 Coal Health

hydrogen sulfide hazard assessment4
Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Detection

  • Odor: <0.02 ppm – none, 0.13 ppm – perceptible, 1.0 ppm - faint, 5 ppm - moderate, 25 ppm – strong, 100 ppm – lose odor in 2-15 minutes
  • Electro chemical sensors: calibrated and within shelf-life
  • Detector tubes and Impregnated Paper: Within shelf-life
  • Absorb air samples with analytical determination
  • Biological exposure methods for expired air and tissues

District 9 Coal Health

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Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Range of Health Effects

(Concentration – Time Effects)

  • Death due to respiratory failure with brief exposures to very high concentrations (seconds at >1000 ppm)
  • Acute intoxication with neurological, respiratory, ocular and cardiac symptoms with potential recovery (exposures from minutes to hours at 250 to 1000 ppm, in animals LC-50 ranges from 335 to 587 ppm)
  • Sub-Acute and Chronic toxicity include: cardiac arrhythmia, neuropathology, respiratory lesions/edema, blood-enzymes, ocular, cellular effects (exposures from 10 – 200 ppm for hours to months)
  • Lifetime exposures – Carcinogenic, developmental - none

District 9 Coal Health

enforcement surveys for h 2 s
Enforcement Surveys for H2S
  • Chapter 4, Health Inspection Procedures Handbook
    • Pre-inspection Actions – Select method, pre-calibration, UMF
    • Walk-Through to document process, duration, frequency, sketch
    • Select maximally exposed occupation (if refuses can sample BZ)
    • Follow normal 8-hour, portal to portal sampling
      • Use Vent Plan method if one is designated, record rationale
      • With instruments, check periodically, follow/note Manuf. instructions
      • Place instrument on shirt near breathing zone, note location
      • Recommend using a second detection method (stain tube, Zefluor tube, OSHA ID141) to verify, record sample time
    • Record miner’s locations, general duties, variance from normal
    • Fill out MSHA 2000-187 (MSHA 2000-194 if analysis needed)

District 9 Coal Health

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Enforcement Surveys for H2S – Cont.
  • Out-brief miners/operators and notify that a citation may be issued if later data analysis indicates an over-exposure
  • If instrument TLV-TWA, 8Hr, exceeds 5 PPM notify operator that corrective action may be required – no citation issued but Vent Plan change.
  • Post Inspection Actions
    • Post calibrate instrument or bump test
    • Download data using manufacturer’s software, save files
    • Evaluated “STEL” file to see if any 15 minute increment > 20PPM
    • Evaluate TLV file to see if 8 hour >10 PPM
  • Contact District for assistance in writing the Citation, if applicable

(Note: Instruments not listed by NIOSH or OSHA as standard method – rationale important)

District 9 Coal Health

hydrogen sulfide hazard assessment8
Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Range of Health Effects

(Receptor Susceptibility)

  • Health status and pre-existing pathology
    • asthmatics, heart patients
  • Concurrent exposures to organs (dust, CO, low 02)
  • Limited human data and uncertainty in applying animal data to human response
  • Small exposure range from no-effect to acute toxicity with uncertainty in epidemiological exposure levels

District 9 Coal Health

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Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Emergency Actions

  • Explosive – 4.3 to 46%, Heavier than air: evacuate and remove ignition sources, ventilate, water spray
  • Respiratory Hazard – Use approved SCBA to rescue victims, if breathing apply 02, if not apply CPR, seek medical attention immediately, keep warm and calm, test atmosphere for toxic concentrations
  • Eye Irritant – irrigate eyes with water if irritated

District 9 Coal Health

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Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Consensus Levels

  • MSHA: TLV – 10 ppm, Ventilation plan actions
    • 20 ppm for 15 minutes, allowable excursion
  • OSHA: 20 ppm (C), 50 ppm @ 10 min. peak / 1/shift
  • ACGIH: 10 ppm TLV-TWA, 15 STEL (NIC 1/5 ppm)
  • NIOSH: IDLH 100 ppm (Imminent Danger)
  • AIHA: ERPG3 100 ppm (60 min.) (life threatening)

ERPG2 30 ppm (60 min.) (serious / irreversible)

District 9 Coal Health

hydrogen sulfide hazard assessment11
Hydrogen Sulfide Hazard Assessment

Summary

  • Acute Risk: Moderate to high – respiratory failure, cardiac and neurological damage, ocular irritation
  • Small range of significant effects – many will tolerate 50 ppm; some fatalities, many injuries at 500 ppm
  • Odor not dependable to detect; use meters, detectors
  • Use air supplied respirators for rescue; Provide O2 / CPR
  • Explosive, may collect in low areas
  • Exposure concentrations may change without warning when low ventilation rates exist

Stay out – Stay alive

District 9 Coal Health