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  1. Gregory M. Shreve Internationalizing Digital Libraries: Towards A Standards-Based Strategy Shreve

  2. Multilingual Modalities Digital libraries may contain resources in many languages. Accessible through the Internet, libraries may be consulted by individuals in other cultural/linguistic "locales" seeking resources in their own languages or searching across languages for resources in languages other than their own. R E S O U R C E S U S E R S Shreve

  3. Internationalization In order to enable the efficient and effective acquisition, storage and retrieval of cross-cultural and cross-linguistic resources, a digital library has to be designed from the outset to allow for heterogeneous linguistic and cultural content. The design process is called “internationalization.” The most effective internationalization strategies are standards-based. Internationalization: a design process intended to enable subsequent linguistic and cultural adaptation I18N Shreve

  4. Internationalization Strategy An internationalization strategy for a Digital Library involves: (1) determining the metadata elements, attributes, value spaces and values that are culturally and linguistically dependent and are to be rendered in multiple languages. (2) creating a mechanism for internationalization that provides administrative control, cross-language tools capability, authority for keywords (terms), translations and translation equivalents. (3) providing an internationalization scheme that offers reusability and scalability and interfaces with relevant national and international standards. Other issues are important (different writing systems and character sets of resources) and different display preferences (interface, resources), but we do not deal with these in this paper. Shreve

  5. Internationalization & Localization Localization is the preparation of locale-specific versions of a digital library resource or collection and consists of the translation of textual material into the language and textual conventions of the target locale and the adaptation of non-textual materials and delivery / display mechanisms to take into account the cultural requirements of that locale. translation internationalization localization adaptation Internationalization is an “upstream” engineering process that should precede localization. Its aim is to make subsequent localization/translation easier, more efficient, and less costly. Shreve

  6. creation storing rendering distribution acquisition retrieval Document Processes Internationalization & Localization internationalization controlled language terminology control content / display separation cultural stylesheeting exchange standards authority management concept-orientation Standards-Based Internationalization Strategies localization reusability, scalability, authority, control, quality, accessibility, acceptability, accuracy Shreve

  7. Internationalization Foci of Internationalization in a Digital Library: reusability translations scalability I18N solution • resource content • metadata content • metadata elements • interface elements • keywords (terms) • vocabularies authority / quality equivalence accessibility cross-language accuracy / acceptability target culture(s) control target document Shreve

  8. Internationalization Loci of Internationalization in a Digital Library: DL resource content (new and existing translations, equivalents) DL resource metadata & description (element labels, content, vocabularies) DL interface (localized dialogs, help, messages, menus) DL tools (x-language: search, glossaries, taxonomies, thesauri) Shreve

  9. Parallel Metadata: Inline Parallel As discussed in my ASIST 2003 presentation, there are two I18N approaches to support localizing a DL. The first approach is inline parallel and involves providing multiple local versions of, for instance, a title or keyword data element in a resource record. The data elements are flagged as “local” versions via the lang attribute. This is the most common localization method. Note that “equivalence” is assumed via adjacency and no authority is provided. Shreve

  10. Inline Parallel: Flawed NO Because this method stores local equivalents of metadata content inline with the original content in the resource record itself, it does not provide for reusability. It is not easily scalable because multiple translations of the same or identical items will exist in different places, leading to redundancy and difficulties in maintenance and quality control. Because there is no schema and system for documenting and managing translations, the source, authority and quality of equivalents and translations cannot be assured. Because authority and quality cannot be assured, accessibility, accuracy and acceptability cannot be assured. The approach does not provide control. reusability scalability authority / quality accessibility accuracy / acceptability control Shreve

  11. Parallel Metadata: External Parallel A more fruitful approach, provides references to standards-based external objects. The external objects can be translation memories (for translations of titles, descriptions or other textual content) or standard (e.g. ISO 12620) glossaries (for multilingual equivalents of data element names and their possible restricted vocabulary values). S T A N D A R D S B A S E D Translation Memory Digital Library Resources text segments terms ISO 12620 Glossary Shreve

  12. <tuv xml:lang=“en-US” creationdate=“20031012” creationid=“Shreve” > <seg>Thermal analysis of anisotropic bodies</seg> </tuv> <tuv xml:lang=“zh-CH” creationdate=“20031012” creationid=“Shreve”> <seg> </seg> </tuv> Parallel Metadata: External Parallel TMX-Compliant Translation Memory <Title lang=“en-US” hastranslation=“true”>Thermal analysis of anisotropic bodies</Title> Optional LOM Attribute TMX = Translation Memory Exchange. A translation memory is a database of “aligned” text segments that are translations of one another. It maintains linguistically “parallel” texts. Shreve

  13. Parallel Metadata: External Parallel Translation memories and glossaries are the most common external localizing objects, but the growing use of statistically based corpus linguistics to create language resources will also make it possible to utilize other monolingual and multilingual resources in Digital Libraries. Standards for representing and storing some of these new language resources do not yet exist. Corpus Shreve

  14. Corpus Parallel Metadata: External Parallel Ontologies Thesauri Taxonomies For instance, multilingual ontologies, thesauri and taxonomies could be constructed from term analysis of DL document corpora. Shreve

  15. Internationalizing Metadata Internationalizing a DL not only involves providing and controlling translations of the content and metadata descriptive elements. Internationalizing a metadata schema also involves determining the elements and element attributes that could affect the scheme’s ability to be used for classification, search, retrieval, and reuse of learning objects in multicultural and multilingual contexts. An internationalization strategy begins with specifying all metadata elements that are culturally and linguistically dependent. Ideally, internationalization is a goal during initial schema development. Unfortunately, as with IEEE-LOM, internationalization may involve existing data elements in a pre-existing schema. Additions and modifications to the elements and element set may be necessary recommended. Shreve

  16. Culturally Dependent Metadata LOM element 2.3.3. Date ( is an example of a culturally dependent meta-data element. CEN (European Committee for Standardization) suggests extensions to “internationalize” Date: <DATETIME>2003-12-25</DATETIME> <DATETIMELOCALE> <LOCALE>US</LOCALE> <SOURCE></SOURCE> <LOCALIZEDDATETIME>12/25/03</LOCALIZEDDATETIME> </DATETIMELOCALE> <DATETIMELOCALE> <LOCALE>UK</LOCALE> <LOCALIZEDDATETIME>25/12/03</LOCALIZEDDATETIME> </DATETIMELOCALE> <DATETIMELOCALE> <LOCALE>AE</LOCALE> <SOURCE></SOURCE> <LOCALIZEDDATETIME>1/11/1424</LOCALIZEDDATETIME> </DATETIMELOCALE> <DATETIMELOCALE> <LOCALE>AE</LOCALE> <SOURCE></SOURCE> <LOCALIZEDDATETIME>1 Dhu’l-Qa’dah 1424</LOCALIZEDDATETIME> </DATETIMELOCALE> Addresses Calendar Currency Date Numbers Telephone Time Shreve

  17. Culturally Dependent Metadata Values Some “universal” metadata elements have values that may be very culturally dependent. For instance, LOM 5.6 Educational. Contexthas a value space [school, higher education, training, other]that is not only extremely limited, but derives from a single cultural context. Different countries have different educational systems. The LOM values are often not applicable or do not have a real correspondence.1 Shreve

  18. Culturally Dependent Metadata Values Although CEN has suggested simply “enlarging” the value space for such elements, true internationalization of these “system” dependent elements would involve providing a locale specification for the element so that a specific vocabulary could be retrieved. Kindergarten Elementary School Middle School High School … <education locale=‘en-US’> <context> value space </context> </education> The ISO 639 language codes and the ISO 3166 country codes do not allow for even more “local” localization. In Germany, for instance, the Bavarian school system differs from the German “norm.” Kindergarten Grundschule Hauptschule Realschule Gesamtschule Gymnasium … <education locale=‘de-DE’> <context> value space </context> </education> Shreve

  19. Metadata: Translation? Creating locale-specific value spaces for more “universal” data elements is a complex task. Localized value spaces cannot be achieved by simply translating the existing or default values. Kindergarten Elementary School Middle School High School … en-US Kindergarten Grundschule Hauptschule Realschule Gesamtschule Gymnasium … de-DE Some values may have one-to-one equivalence. Others do not. Middle school (junior high) may include one or more of Hauptschule / Realschule / Gymnasium / Gesamtschule. The values imply different age ranges, different educational objectives and values and different social structures. Shreve

  20. Restricted Vocabularies Multilingual / multicultural restricted vocabularies must be developed as standards by in-country domain experts. Equivalence should be contolled, standardized and authoritative. LOM 5.2 Learning Resource Type element value space exercise simulation questionnaire diagram figure graph index slide table narrative text exam experiment problem statement self assessment lecture European Treasury Browser Controlled Vocabulary authoritative equivalence Lecture Vorlesung Conferencia Conferenza Föreläsningar Foredrag διάλεξη validated mapping Shreve

  21. Restricted Vocabularies Multilingual / multicultural restricted vocabularies should be concept-based. For two vocabulary items to be equivalent they should represent the same concept. The concepts should be documented in authoritative multilingual glossaries such as those specified in ISO 12620. Such glossaries provide one of the bases for external parallel metadata methods. concept ISO 12620 Glossary label lecture Vorlesung Conferencia Conferenza Föreläsningar διάλεξη Foredrag Shreve

  22. Concept Object Concept objects are the core of terminology glossaries. They organize both monolingual and multilingual data. Organized into terminology glossary databases for computer-assisted translation, they are indispensable in today’s language industry. Shreve

  23. KOS, Glossary and Concept When concepts are documented in authoritative multilingual glossaries they can also provide the basis for KOS (knowledge organization systems) of use in concept-mediated monolingual and multilingual browsing and searching in DLs. Shreve

  24. ISO 12620 Terminology Glossary • A terminology is concept-oriented. • A terminology is documented in a glossary, not a dictionary. • A terminology glossary is organized by concept, not by linguistic label. • A term is the word, lexical string, or linguistic label used to designate a single concept in the language / culture / subculture of a special subject field. • A glossary documents the multiple words or lexical strings (in a single language or in multiple languages) that designate a single concept. • A glossary thus organizes synonyms (monolingual) and equivalents (multilingual) of a concept. • The organization of a terminology system / glossary reflects the knowledge organization system of the domain it describes. It is also a Knowledge Organization System (KOS) document. Shreve

  25. term type term type ISO 12620 Data Categories I Glossary ISO 12620 Data Categories <termEntry id="boundary conditions"> concept <descrip type="subjectField">Computational Materials Science</descrip> <descrip type="definition"> Those physical and/or mechanical conditions existing around the surfaces and limits of a structural body.</descrip> <admin type="source"> Composite Materials Dictionary: </admin> concept description concept relations <descrip type="superordinateconcept" target="boundary "> boundary </descrip> administration <admin type="originatingPerson">Adriana Luchian</admin> language set <langSet xml:lang="en-us"> term (label) description Shreve

  26. term type term type <termNote type='transferComment'>...</ ISO 12620 Data Categories II language set <tig> <term>boundary conditions</term> <date>4/12/03</date> <descrip type="context">For solids with spatial discontinuities, such as bounded solids or those containing holes, crack, interfaces, etc., we need to satisfy some prescribed boundary conditions.</descrip> <admin type="source">Computational Materials Science Corpus, Kent State University, March, 2003</admin> </tig> <langSet xml:lang="en-us"> term (label) information equivalence <termNote type='transferComment'>...</ <tig> <term>conditions limites</term> <date>4/12/03</date> <descrip type="context">Elles ont été appliquées au cas d'un objet impénétrable " mou " (condition de Dirichlet sur son contour) par C. Rozier et objet " dur " (condition de Neumann sur son contour) par E. Bocly et moi-même immergé dans un guide d'onde dont les parois sont impénétrables (la condition limite à la surface est de Dirichlet et sur le fond de Neumann).</descrip> <admin type="source">Computational Materials Science Corpus, Kent State University, March, 2003</admin> </tig> language set term (label) information <langSet xml:lang=“fr-fr"> Shreve

  27. ISO TC 37 Glossaries Thomas Baker, in his discussion of the Dublin Core in multiple languages, laments the lack of “comprehensive dictionaries” for metadata labels and vocabularies.2 Many issues in multilingual, multicultural DL development revolve around cultural variation in concept description and concept systems (KOS) and establishing linguistic authority (access to authoritative terms, documentation of authority and availability of authoritative equivalents). What we really need to support DL metadata schemas is not a “dictionary,” but standards-based external internationalization strategies such as TMX translation memories and multilingual terminology glossaries as defined by ISO TC 37’s ISO 12620 and other standards. ISO TC 37: Standardization of principles, methods and applications relating to terminology and other language resources. Shreve

  28. ISO TC 37 Glossaries and Searching Glossary A concept-based multilingual glossary can be implemented to support cross-language searching. A glossary can provide authority for keyword selection where multilingual equivalents are then included in “parallel” in the resource record. Alternatively, a glossary-based DL can make it unnecessary to include more than one local term in the resource record. Keyword L2 query Keyword L1 Keyword L3 concept-mediated multilingual search KeywordL4 Shreve

  29. Glossary Data Element Names A glossary can also be implemented to provide localized labels for data element names. In the event there are “local” versions of a schema (a Dublin Core or IEEE-LOM not in English) that need to be equated for software exchange, or data elements that need to be explained (training, help files) or used in an interface (resource submission form) a glossary can provide authoritative multi-language labels for a canonical data element name and its attributes. token L1 element name canonical element name or identifier L2 element name label L3 element name Shreve

  30. Conclusion & References • Adding multilingual and multicultural metadata to a DL involves: • Determining the metadata elements, attributes , value spaces and values that are culturally dependent and, if the display and interface are to be localized, those metadata elements that are to be rendered in multiple languages; • Providing external parallel strategies for localization; • The external parallel system is a more robust localization approach, providing control, administrative tools, authoritative terminology, and authority for translations and equivalents. • The external parallel system offers reusability, scalability and leverages the strengths of international standards. • European Committee for Standardization. 2003. CEN Workshop Agreement 14643. Internationalisation of the IEEE Learning Object Metadata. ICS 03.180; 35.060; 35.240.99. • Baker, Thomas. 1997. Metadata Semantics Shared Across Languages: Dublin Core in languages other than English. • European Schoolnet. Recommended data model format to be used as a standard by national systems to include national/local resources in the EU Treasury Browser. Shreve