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The Middle Colonies. New York. Settling the Middle Colonies. Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands. Henry Hudson’s voyage provided Holland with a claim to the region 1600s  Golden Age of Dutch history. Major commercial and naval power. Challenging England on the seas.

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The Middle



Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands

  • Henry Hudson’s voyage provided Holland with a claim to the region
  • 1600s  Golden Age of Dutch history.
    • Major commercial and naval power.
    • Challenging England on the seas.
      • 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars
    • Major colonial power [mainly in the East Indies].

New Netherlands

  • New Netherlands  founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624)
    • Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade.
      • Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony.
      • 30 families settled along Hudson River and Manhattan Island
    • Manhattan [New Amsterdam]
      • Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre.
peter minuit
Peter Minuit
  • New Netherland Governor
  • Purchased Manhattan for $24.00 worth of cloth and trinkets
  • Indians did not have concept of “white” land ownership. Land was communal. It could not be owned.

New Amsterdam, 1639

Dutch West India Company ran with the interests of the stockholders in mind.

No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy.

Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic.

Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted.

Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists.


New Amsterdam, 1660

  • Characteristics of New Amsterdam:
    • Aristocratic  patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them].
    • Cosmopolitan  diverse population with many different languages.

New York

Manors &

Land Grants


patroon system
Patroon System
  • Patroon: person who transported and settled fifty families in exchange for a large tract of land in the New World.
  • Families had to live on the patroon’s land and under his control
  • System was unfair and feudalistic.
  • It failed because land was in abundance and people didn’t want to sacrifice their freedom.

Swedes in New Netherlands

  • Mid-1600s  Sweden in Golden Age settled small, under-funded colony [called “New Sweden”] near New Netherland.
  • 1655  Dutch under director-general Peter Stuyvesantattacked New Sweden.
    • Main fort fell after bloodless siege.
    • New Sweden absorbed into New Netherland.

New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony

  • Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled the area!]
  • 1664  English soldiers arrived.
    • Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses. People living there did not see Britain as a threat.
    • Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing a shot. (Angered Dutch by taxing them to fight the Indians)
  • Renamed “New York”
    • England gained strategic harbor between her northern & southern colonies.
    • England now controlled the Atlantic coast!

Dutch Residue in New York

Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC.

New York Cityseal.

Names  Harlem, Brooklyn

Architecture  gambrel roof

Customs  Easter eggs, Santa Claus, waffles, bowling, sleighing, skating, kolf [golf].


The Quakers

  • Called Quakers because they “quaked” during intense religious practices.
  • They offended religious & secular leaders in England.
    • Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of England.
    • They met without paid clergy
    • Believed all were children of God refused to treat the upper classes with deference.
      • Keep hats on.
      • Addressed them as commoners 
      • Wouldn’t take oaths.
      • Pacifists.

William Penn

  • Aristocratic Englishman.
  • 1660 – attracted tothe Quaker faith.
  • Embraced Quakerismafter military service.
  • 1681  he received agrant from king (Charles II)to establish a colony.
    • This settled a debt the king owed his father.
    • Named Pennsylvania [“Penn’s Woodland”].
  • He sent out paid agents and advertised for settlers  his pamphlets were pretty honest.
    • Liberal land policy attracted many immigrants.
    • “Holy Experiment” in America.

Penn & Native Americans

  • Bought [didn’t simply take] land from Indians.
  • Quakers went among the Indians unarmed.
  • BUT…….. non-Quaker Europeans flooded PA
    • Treated native peoples poorly.
    • This undermined the actions of the Quakers!

Government of Pennsylvania

  • Representative assembly elected by landowners.
  • No tax-supported church.
  • Political liberty
  • Freedom of worship guaranteed to all.
  • Forced to deny right to vote & hold office to Catholics & Jews by English govt.
  • Death penalty only for treason & murder.
    • Compared to 200 capital crimes in England!

Pennsylvanian Society

  • Attracted many different people
    • Religious misfits from other colonies.
    • Many different ethnic groups.
  • No provision for military defense.
  • No restrictions on immigration.
  • No slavery!!
  • “Blue Laws” [sumptuary laws]  against stage plays, cards, dice, excessive hilarity, etc.

A society that gave its citizens economic opportunity, civil liberty, & religious freedom!!

pennsylvania summary
Pennsylvania Summary

1. Religious toleration

2. political liberty

3. respectful treatment of the Indians

4. Generous terms on which Penn offered land

5. Penn offered aid to immigrants

6. Freemen (taxpayers and property owners elected the councilors and assembly


New Jersey — PA’s Neighbor

  • 1664  aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area from the Duke of York.
  • Many New Englanders [because of worn out soil] moved to NJ.
    • 1674  West NJ sold to Quakers.
    • East NJ eventually acquired by Quakers.
  • 1702  E & W NJ combined into NJ and created one colony.
new jersey named after the island of jersey sir george carteret
New Jersey: named after the island of Jersey: (Sir George Carteret)
  • Originally East and West Jersey
  • Came under control of New York in 1664
  • East: NYC (Dutch settlers
  • West: Phila. Swedish settlers
      • 1676: Quakers
      • 1689: common ownership of New Jersey, but not really unified.
      • 1702: Royal colony

Delaware — PA’s Neighbor

Named after Lord De La Warr [harsh military governor of VA in 1610].

Closely associated with Penn’s colony.

1703  granted its own assembly.

Remained under the control of PA until the American Revolution.

First controlled by the Swedes, Dutch, then English


The Settlement of Maryland

  • A royal charter wasgranted to GeorgeCalvert, Lord Baltimore,in 1632.
  • Maryland named for
  • Wife of Charles I, Queen
  • Henrietta Maria
  • A proprietary colony created in 1634.
  • A healthier locationthan Jamestown.
    • Tobacco would be the main crop.
    • Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives.

A Haven for Catholics

  • Colonists only willing to come to MD if they received land.
  • Colonists who did come received modest farms dispersed around the Chesapeake area.
    • Catholic land barons surrounded by mostly Protestant small farmers.
    • Conflict between barons and farmers led to Baltimore losing proprietary rights at the end of the 17c.
  • In the late 1600s, black slaves began to be imported.

A Haven for Catholics

  • Baltimore permitted high degree of freedom of worship in order to prevent repeat of persecution of Catholics by Protestants.
    • High number of Protestants threatened because of overwhelming rights given to Catholics.
  • Toleration Act of 1649
    • Supported by the Catholics in MD.
    • Guaranteed toleration to all CHRISTIANS.
    • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.].
    • In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed!!
1619 year of importance
1619: Year of Importance
  • 1. House of Burgesses established
  • 2. arrival of African slaves
  • 3. women arrived: thank goodness!!
  • 4. Profitable trade in tobacco

Growing Political Power

  • The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England
    • Control over finances, militia, etc.
  • By the end of the 17c, H of B was able to initiate legislation.
  • First self-governing assembly in New World
  • A Council appointed by royal governor
    • Mainly leading planters.
    • Functions like House of Lords.
    • High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.

Virginia Becomes a Royal Colony

  • James I grew hostile to Virginia
    • He hated tobacco.
    • He distrusted the House of Burgesses which he called a seminary of sedition.
  • 1624  he revoked the charter of the bankrupt VA Company.
    • Thus, VA became a royal colony, under the king’s direct control!

English Tobacco Label

  • First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619.
    • Their status was not clear  perhaps slaves, perhaps indentured servants.
    • Slavery not that important until the end of the 17c.

17c Populationin the Chesapeake

WHY this large increase in black popul.??


Colonial Slavery

  • As the number of slaves increased, white colonists reacted to put down perceived racial threat.
    • Slavery transformed from economic to economic and racial institution.
    • Early 1600s  differences between slave and servant were unclear.
  • By the mid-1680s, black slaves outnumbered white indentured servants.

Colonial Slavery

  • Beginning in 1662  “Slave Codes”
    • Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters.
    • In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write.
    • Conversion to Christianity did not qualify the slave for freedom.

Frustrated Freemen

  • Late 1600s  large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area.
    • Little access to land or women for marriage.
  • 1670  The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men!

Nathaniel Bacon’s Rebellion: 1676

  • Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley
    • Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians.
      • Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area.
      • Berkley refused to retaliate for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.

Nathaniel Bacon

GovernorWilliam Berkeley


Bacon’s Rebellion

  • Rebels attacked Indians, whether they were friendly or not to whites.
  • Governor Berkeley driven from Jamestown.
  • They burned the capital.
    • Rebels went on a rampage of plundering.
  • Bacon suddenly died of fever.
  • Berkeley brutally crushed the rebellion and hanged 20 rebels.

Results of Bacon’s Rebellion

  • It exposed resentments between inland frontiersmen and landless former servants against gentry on coastal plantations.
    • Socio-economic class differences/clashes between rural and urban communities would continue throughout American history.
  • Upper class planters searched for laborers less likely to rebel  BLACK SLAVES!!
  • 1. Carolina: Latin for Charles, Carolus
  • 2. 1624: Virginia Company:
  • North of the James River: Maryland
  • South: of the Virginia Colony

The West Indies  Way Station to Mainland America

  • 1670  a group of small English farmers from the West Indies arrived in Carolina.
    • Were squeezed out by sugar barons.
    • Sugar barons brought black slaves and a model of the Barbados slave code with them.
  • The King granted Carolina to 8 supporters
    • They hoped to use Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe.

Colonizing the Carolinas

  • Carolina developed close economic ties to the West Indies.
    • Many Carolinian settlers were originally from the West Indies.

Port of Charles Town, SC

Became the busiest port in the South.

City with aristocratic feel.

Religious toleration attracted diverse inhabitants.


Crops of the Carolinas: Rice

  • The primary export.
  • Rice was still an exotic food in England.
    • Was grown in Africa, so planters imported West African slaves.
    • These slaves had a genetic trait that made them immune to malaria.
  • By 1710  black slaves were a majority in Carolina.

American Long Grain Rice


Crops of theCarolinas: Indigo

In colonial times, the main use for indigo was as a dye for spun cotton threads that were woven into cloth for clothes.

Today in the US, the main use for indigo is a dye for cotton work clothes & blue jeans.


Conflict With Spanish Florida

  • Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestants on their borders.
  • Anglo-Spanish Wars
    • The Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina.
    • Either inciting local Native Americans to attack or attacking themselves.
  • By 1700  Carolina was too strong to be wiped out by the Spanish!

The Emergence of North Carolina

  • Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA
    • Dissenters from VA moved south to northern Carolina.
      • Poor farmers with little need for slaves.
      • Religious dissenters.
  • Distinctive trait of North Carolinians
    • trong spirit of resistance to authority.
  • 1712  NC officially separated from SC.

Late-Coming Georgia

Founded in 1733.

Last of the 13 colonies.

Named in honor of King George II.

Founded by James Oglethorpe: rehab

People through hard word and opportunity

  • Model poor: Georgia would be founded by those who could not pay their debts in England
  • Utopian rules in place: no slavery or rum

Georgia--The “Buffer” Colony

  • Chief Purpose of Creating Georgia:
    • As a “buffer” between the valuable Carolinas & Spanish Florida & French Louisiana.
    • A haven for debtors thrown in to prison.
  • Determined to keep slavery and rum out.
    • Slavery found in GAby 1750.

The Port City of Savannah

  • Diverse community.
    • All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration.
north south divide
North-South Divide
  • New England: all class, mobile, and fluctuating society with upward movement pushed by solid work ethic
  • South: gentry land owning class with hereditary longings, emphasis on families, using indentured servants and black slaves. Religion used to maintain the status quo, rather than overwhelming desire to live a godly life.

Division of country into north and south