Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Nancy Leveson: Safeware CHAPTER 1: Risk in Modern Society. Three Mile Island 1979 Bhopal, 1984 Space Shuttle, 1986 Chernobyl, 1986 Therac-25 1985 - 1987. IS NEW TECHNOLOGY MAKING OUR WORLD RISKIER?.
In the United States technological hazards account for 15 to 25 % of human mortality and have significantly surpassed natural hazards in impact, cost and general importance.
Flood damage in the United States, for example, has increased as expenditures on flood control have increased. [154 - Trevor Kletz. Myths of the Chemical industry. The Institution of Chemical Engineers, Rugby, Warwickshire, United Kingdom, 1984].p.4
In fact, all hazards are affected by complex interactions among technological, ecological, sociopolitical, and cultural systems [30, 174, 3339].
Attempts to control risk by treating it simply as a technical problem or only as a social issue are doomed to fail or to be less effective than possible.
In some instances --such as the Bhopal accident -- the public has completely trusted others to plan for and respond effectively to an emergency, with tragic results.
We are not safe from the risks posed by hazardous technologies, and any choice of technology carries with it possible worst case scenarios that must take into account in any implementation decision. The public has the right to know precisely what these worst case scenarios are and participate in all decisions that directly or indirectly affect their future health and well-being.
In many cases, we must accept the fact that the result of employing such criteria may be a decision to forego the implementation of a hazardous technology altogether [30, p. 109]. p.6
Is risk increasing in our modern society as a result of new technological achievements, or are we simply experiencing a new and unjustified form of Luddhism? p.6
Increasing Complexity/Cont.An example of this increasingly common type of complexity, modern petrochemical plants often combine several separate chemical processes into one continuous production, without the intermediate storage that would de-couple the subsystems .
In the past component failure was cited as the major factor in accidents, today more accidents result from dangerous design characteristics and interactions among components  p8 top.
Not only does functional complexity make the designer’s task more difficult, but the complexity and scope of the projects require numerous people and teams to work together. The anonymity of team projects dilutes individualresponsibility 
When the transfer was complete the computer told the pump to stop, but because it had been stated manually it did not stop and a spillage occurred[157, p.225]. P 9
Accepting Perrow’s argument that interactive complexity and coupling are a cause of serious accidents, then the introduction of computers to control dangerous systems, may increase risk unless great care is taken to minimize complexity and coupling..