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Facilities and Equipment Hygiene. Facilities and Equipment. Module 3 Facilities and Equipment Hygiene (Managers). Facilities and Equipment. Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene Introduction Cleaning Technology (methods) 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents

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Facilities and Equipment

Module 3

Facilities and Equipment Hygiene

(Managers)

slide3

Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
slide4

Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
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Facilities and Equipment: INTRODUCCION

  • T A R G E T
  • To adopt the necessary precautions to prevent contamination and microbial multiplication
  • What to achieve:
  • To comply with the standards in force
  • To promote proper behaviour when cleaning and disinfecting
  • To correct deficiencies when applying cleaning products that could have negative consequences
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Facilities and Equipment: INTRODUCCION

  • O B J E C T I V E S
      • A cleaning and disinfecting programme that enables the equipment
      • To achieve the required level hygiene
  • 
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Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
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Facilities and Equipment. 1. CLEANING TECHNOLOGY

  • Cleaning should be doneREGULARLY & FREQUENTLY
  • EQUIPMENT & INSTALLATIONSproperly maintained
  • CLEANING PROCESS
        • The nature of the dirt that must be removed
        • How the equipment & installations are designed
        • The type of surface to be cleaned
        • The hardness of the water
        • The degree of cleanliness required
        • Methodology, tools and ideal products

factors

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Facilities and Equipment. 1. CLEANING TECHNOLOGY

  • PHYSICAL CLEANING
          • Removes all the visible impurities from the surface
          • Brushes, sponges, scouring pads..
          • Used to be complete with a chemical cleaning
  • CHEMICAL CLEANING
    • Removes or destroys even the non-visible impurities (and their smells)
    • Includes solid waste and contaminating flora
    • Detergents, chemical products…
  • Proper combination of Physical Cleaning and Chemical Cleaning
  • DESIRED LEVELS OF CLEANLINESS
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Facilities and Equipment. 1. CLEANING TECHNOLOGY. 1.1 CLEANING METHODS

  • CLEANING METHODS
    • DRY CLEANING: removing, vacuuming, brushing off the dirt…
    • WET CLEANING: sprinkling, main cleaning (mechanical strength & high temperature), rising
    • PRESSURE CLEANING: Between 25 and 120 bar are applied (this method may damage the material)
    • SPECIAL CLEANING PROCEDURES: use of steam with temperatures of up to 140ºC, gases (such as nitrogen), special products and gels…
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Facilities and Equipment. 1. CLEANING TECHNOLOGY. 1.1 CLEANING METHODS

GENERAL OUTLINE OF A CLEANING & DISINFECTING PROCESS

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Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
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Facilities and Equipment. 2. CLASSIFYING, CHARACTERISING AND CHOOSING DETERGENTS

  • DETERGENT:A cleaning agent
  • Taking in consideration specific properties, detergents may be classified as follows:
      • Inorganic alkalines
      • Acids:
        • Organic
        • Inorganic
      • Surface agents:
        • Anionic
        • Non-ionic
        • Cationic
        • Amphoteric
      • Sequestering agents
        • Inorganic
        • organic
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Facilities and Equipment. 2. CLASSIFYING, CHARACTERISING AND CHOOSING DETERGENTS

DETERGENT: CHARACTERISTICS

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Facilities and Equipment. 2. HOW TO CHOOSE A PERFECT DETERGENT?

DETERGENT:a ideal detergent should

Be soluble in water at different temperatures (cleaning is not always done with hot water).

Not be corrosive, nor affect the surfaces of the equipment in any other way.

Not be toxic and not irritate the skin or eyes.

Be odourless.

Be biodegradable; the remains of detergents that are removed with the effluents may cause problems in the environment although, nowadays, these problems are being overcome with the use of degradable products.

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Facilities and Equipment. 2. HOW TO CHOOSE A PERFECT DETERGENT?

DETERGENT:a ideal detergent should

Have an affordable cost, keeping in mind that the price per volume unit may not necessarily correspond to the economy criterion as the differences in the doses to be applied among different products may be great, which would condition the total cost of their application.

Be easily washed away; detergent solutions must rinse off easily so that remains will not be stuck to the surfaces that have just been cleaned.

Remain stable during prolonged storage.

Be effective with all types of dirt, given the extremely varying nature of the substances to be removed.

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Facilities and Equipment. 2. HOW TO CHOOSE A PERFECT DETERGENT?

  • DETERGENT: Different PROPERTIES
  • Wetting ability: reduce the surface tension of the water so that the cleaning solution can penetrate the dirt and remove it more easily.
    • Ability for dispersing the insoluble materials, preventing aggregates from forming, keeping them in suspension so that they will be washed away before they can resettle on the surface.
    • Good ability for dissolving dirt, both organic and inorganic; the faster the dissolution stage, the better the detergent will be.
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Facilities and Equipment. 2. HOW TO CHOOSE A PERFECT DETERGENT?

  • DETERGENT: Different PROPERTIES
    • Ability for emulsifying greases and oils, keeping them in dissolution and, peptising ability for removing protein residue more easily.
    • Grease saponification, i.e. turn the greases into soluble soaps
    • Sequestering ability on the calcium and magnesium ions dissolved in hard waters in such a way that there will be no precipitation of certain salts and the effectiveness of the cleaning will not be diminished.
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Facilities and Equipment. 2. HOW TO CHOOSE A PERFECT DETERGENT?

  • DETERGENT: Some ADVICES
        • Notevery Detergent include bactericides
    • Drying must always be done with disposable paper

Always read the labels

Use of a combination of several detergents in order to, by means of suitable formulations, fully satisfy a specific cleaning need.

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Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

  • DISINFECT - OBJECTIVE:
    • eliminate the vegetative form of the pathogenic micro-organism
    • Achieve a significant reduction of the banal flora

Chemical disinfectantsare substances that destroy a series of micro-organisms

but not necessarily the bacterial spores

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

Disinfecting: B A S I C C O N C E P T S

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

Disinfecting: B A S I C C O N C E P T S

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

Disinfecting: B A S I C C O N C E P T S

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

Disinfecting: B A S I C C O N C E P T S

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

TYPES OF DISINFECTION

  • Thermal disinfection. Performed by applying heat.
  • Disinfection by Steam. By applying liquids that have been previously heated and even subjected to pressure. The problem is that they leave residual humidity. For example, hot water performs better at 90-95º C.
  • Chemical Disinfection. By using chemical substances or compounds.
  • Disinfection by Radiation. Using electromagnetic energy (ionising or non-ionising).
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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

CHARACTERISTICS OF DISINFECTION

The products which, to this end, are used for disinfecting surfaces that come into contact with the foods, must comply with a series of characteristics:

  • Be easily soluble in water and removable by rinsing.
  • Not be corrosive or capable of altering the surfaces to be treated.
  • Not irritate the skin, eyes or mucous membranes. Not be toxic, especially with the dosage used.
  • Be odourless or, in any event, not give off unpleasant smells or alter the organoleptic properties of the processed foods.
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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

CHARACTERISTICS OF DISINFECTION

  • Offer an acceptable cost/profit ratio.
  • Be stable in the presence of organic residue and, should the situation arise, in the presence of hard waters.
  • Remain stable over a reasonable period of time in its concentrated form and over a shorter period of time in its diluted form.
  • Be efficient in the speedy destruction of micro-organisms, especially bacteria, both Gram positive and Gram negative. They must destroy most of the fungal spores as well as the bacterial spores.
  • Be effective at different work temperatures.
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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE EFFICIENCY OF A

DISINFECTION TREATMENT

Time of contact between the surface and the disinfecting agent; it will be as long as may be necessary to allow the agent to act efficiently.

Temperature of application: every disinfectant has a range of temperatures at which it is most effective

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE EFFICIENCY OF A

DISINFECTION TREATMENT

Concentration of the disinfecting agent: a minimum concentration is required to achieve the desired efficiency. Also, there is a limit that should not be surpassed and above which the effectiveness of the treatment is not any greater.

  • Degree of cleanliness of the equipment:

DISINFECTION IS MORE EFFECTIVE WHEN IT IS PRECEDED BY A PROPER CLEANING OF THE SURFACES!

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Facilities and Equipment. 3. TECHNOLOGY OF DISINFECTION

PERFORMANCE OF THE DISINFECTANT

The disinfectants have severalaction mechanisms

    • Precipitation or denaturalisation of the proteins of the cytoplasm, as with the quaternary ammonium salts.
  • Deterioration of the cellular wall.
  • Inactivation of enzymes vital to the metabolism of the micro-organism.
  • Modification of the external and/or internal pH (acids and alkalis).
  • Redox reactions that affect the micro-organism (chlorinated and iodophor disinfectants).
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Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
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Facilities and Equipment. 4. CHOICE OF DISINFECTANT

EVALUATION OF DISINFECTANT

There are several different tests that can be used in laboratories to assess the biocide power of disinfectants against micro-organisms.

These tests measure the speed with which the selected bacteria or other micro-organisms are destroyed in pre-established conditions.

  • RIDEAL-WALKER TEST
  • CHICK-MARTIN TEST
  • ENHANCED KELSEY-SYKES TEST
  • SURFACE TESTING
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Facilities and Equipment

  • Module 3 – Facilities and equipment hygiene
      • Introduction
      • Cleaning Technology (methods)
      • 2. Classifying, Characterising and Choosing Detergents
      • 3. Technology of Disinfection (methods)
      • 4. Choice of Disinfectants
      • 5. Using Heat
slide38

Facilities and Equipment. 5. USING HEAT

USING HEAT

  • Heat can be applied in  forms:
  • WATER STEAM

HOT AIR

  • Most efficient sterilisation method
  • Wet heat destroys the micro-organisms at relatively low temperatures as it denaturalises their proteins
  • Higher temperatures and longer periods of time are required to destroy microbes with hot air.
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Facilities and Equipment. 5. USING HEAT

Wet heat is a good disinfecting and sterilising agent because:

  • It is not corrosive
  • It is economical
  • It has excellent penetrating power
  • It does notleave residue
  • It is active against most micro-organisms.

Temperature 80º / 90 º C

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Facilities and Equipment

e n j o y y o u r m e a l !!!