12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion. Normal Solids. Ex. Glass jar too tight, hot water over lid. Linear expansion – increase in any one dimension of a solid, linear is the expansion occurring along a line. L – length T – temp. Length and temp. is directly proportional. Thermal Expansion.
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Linear Thermal Expansion of a Solid
A steel section of the Alaskan pipeline had a length of 65 m and a temperature of 18 C when it was installed. What is its change in length when the temperature drops to a frigid -45 C?
A cylindrical brass rod (cross sectional area = 1.3 x 10^-5 m2) hangs vertically straight down from a ceiling. When an 860N block is hung from the lower end of the rod, the rod stretches. The rod is then cooled such that it contracts to its original length. By how many degrees must the temperature be lowered?
Further cooling of the surface water below 4 C makes it less dense than the deeper layers then the surface layer does not sink but stays on top.