Download
how do we know what we know n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
How do we know what we know? PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
How do we know what we know?

How do we know what we know?

160 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

How do we know what we know?

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. How do we know what we know? Positivism. What is it? How valid is positivism?

  2. Autopoiesis (Maturana and Varela) • Critiques notion of environment as external • Assumes we don’t have a Point of View • How can A cause B cause C cause D when we’re all part of same environment? • Organ. Are in trouble when they see themselves as egocentric (like above) • Pollution and poverty as externality

  3. Autopoiesis: What is it? • Systems that are autonomous, self-referential and circular. • Like Einstein discovered: light is made up of particles and waves, neither of which can be reduced to the other. Such are organizations and their environments.

  4. Self-Referential • Systems that try to shape themselves in their own image

  5. Circularity • Change in one element of the system is coupled with changes elsewhere because of connections.

  6. Autonomous • In the context of Autopoeisis, autonomy DOES NOT mean: independent or isolated. • Systems

  7. Applying Autopoeisis to Org. • An egocentric org will make a decision despite information from the system. For example, how might the car industry be an egocentric org given the film we just saw. • How could the car industry be made autopoietic?

  8. Chaos Theory • Complex non-linear systems with multiple systems of interactions. • Despite unpredictability, order emerges. • Order emerges because of attractors that pull behavior in particular direction • Latent potentials affect which attractors emerge

  9. Applying Chaos Theory to Orgs • You apply TeamWork to your organization in a top-down fashion. Workers resist. What latent potential highlighted resistance as an attractor?

  10. Loops not Lines: Mutual Causality • Changes occur in loops not lines. • We need to move beyond A causes B to mutual causality. • We deny how complex the world and feel that you can solve problems simply, for example….

  11. Applying Loops not Lines to Org • This helps us understand how laying off workers can affect the remaining workforce. • Or how denying rights to gays/lesbians could affect productivity.

  12. Organizations as Dialectic • Every phenomenon creates the opposite of itself. So life produces death. • Societies change because of the internal contradictions created in the social world. • For example, unionization creates movement by managers to end unionization.

  13. Applying dialectics to Orgs • Think about how a new rule can create the opposite effect of what’s intended.

  14. Autonomous • Systems that are free to produce their own survival.