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Altered States of Consciousness. Why do people sleep?. Vocabulary. Consciousness: A state of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions

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  • Consciousness: A state of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions
  • REM sleep: a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming.
  • Circadian rhythm: the rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day.
  • Insomnia: The failure to get enough sleep at night in order to feel rested the next day.
  • Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day.
  • Night Terrors: Sleep disruptions that occur during Stage IV of sleep, involving screaming, panic, or confusion
  • Sleep Walking: walking or carrying out behaviors while asleep.
freud s level of consciousness
Freud’s Level of Consciousness

really quickly
Really Quickly
  • Id: Freud believed that the id is based on our pleasure principle. In other words, the id wants whatever feels good at the time, with no consideration for the reality of the situation.
  • Ego: The ego is based on the reality principle. The ego understands that other people have needs and desires and that sometimes being impulsive or selfish can hurt us in the long run.
  • Superego: The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong.
freud s levels of consciousness
Freud’s Levels of Consciousness
  • Levels of consciousness
    • Conscious—In Freudian terms, thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering
    • Preconscious—Freud’s term for thoughts or motives that one can become aware of easily
    • Unconscious—Freud’s term for thoughts or motives that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness but that can be made available through psychoanalysis.

Huffman, 2005

the unconscious
The Unconscious
  • Clinical evidence for postulating the unconscious:
    • Dreams
    • Slips of the tongue
    • Posthypnotic suggestions
    • Material derived from free-association
    • Material derived from projective techniques
    • Symbolic content of psychotic symptoms
      • NOTE: consciousness is only a thin slice of the total mind

Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy - Chapter 4 (3)

from the interpretations of dreams freud 1900
From The Interpretations Of Dreams, Freud, 1900
  • Dreams are "psychological phenomena of complete validity -- the fulfillment of wishes..." (2198)
  • "What is the source of material that has been modified to into the dream?": Id drives pushed back into the unconscious by the Superego.
from the interpretations of dreams freud 19001
From The Interpretations Of Dreams, Freud, 1900
  • "Can a dream tell us anything new about our internal psychical process?" Freud deduces that the dream "language" is evidence of how our brains function.
  • "Can its content correct opinions we have held during the day?" Freud's initial, primary concern is curing neurosis or mental disease. He believes we must confront our repressed ideas and emotions -- our dream wishes -- in order to become mentally healthy, but in order to do so, we must first identify them: reading our symbolic dream language is the primary means of doing so.
from the interpretations of dreams freud 19002
From The Interpretations Of Dreams, Freud, 1900
  • The meaning of a dream is displaced: it is not one-to-one or obvious; our minds protect themselves from the idea or meaning's "intensity". ie: "The truth? You can't handle the truth!" -- Jack Nicholson, A Few Good Men
  • Because the Id's primary drives are sex and aggression, and because the Superego and society primarily govern, regulate sexual and aggressive behavior, our "dream-wishes" and thus our dreams, are largely sexual and violent.
  • Answer the following questions based on the video.
  • During REM sleep, in what physical state is the body?
  • Which stage f sleep is associated with negative emotions? Why might this be the case?
  • What percentage of our dreams are estimated to be negative?
  • According to Antonio Zadra, what do our dreams reflect?
teenagers and sleep
Teenagers and Sleep
  • According to the National Sleep Foundation:
  • Biological sleep patterns shift later in the day
  • Hard to get to sleep before 11.
  • Average teen gets 7 ½ hours a night,
  • Average teen needs 9 ¼ hours a night.