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Animal Science 434 Reproductive Physiology. Lec 5: Embryogenesis of the Pituitary and Sexual Development. Development of the Pituitary Gland. Infundibulum. Brain. Rathke’s Pouch. Stomodeum. Germ Cell Migration. Migration begins by the 4 week of gestation in cow and human.

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animal science 434 reproductive physiology

Animal Science 434Reproductive Physiology

Lec 5: Embryogenesis of the Pituitary and Sexual Development

development of the pituitary gland
Development of the Pituitary Gland

Infundibulum

Brain

Rathke’s Pouch

Stomodeum

slide7

Germ Cell Migration

Migration begins by the 4 week of gestation in cow and human.

slide8

Migration from endoderm

through mesoderm.

fetal kidneys
Fetal Kidneys
  • Pronephros
    • regresses
  • Mesonephros
    • portions of reproductive tract
  • Metenephros
    • Adult kindney and urinary ducts
development of mesenephros and metenephros1
Development of Mesenephros and Metenephros

Early Development Flash Movie

http://www.ansci.wisc.edu/jjp1/as434/powerpoint/fa08/early_dev.swf

Requires the free flash player which can be downloaded from: www.adobe.com

jost experiments
Jost Experiments

Mesonephric Ducts

(Wolffian Ducts)

Paramesonephric Ducts

(Mullerian Ducts)

Testis

Ovary

Epididymis

Epididymis

Oviduct

Vas Deferens

Seminal Vesicles

Uterus

slide14

Sex Determination: The Jost Paradigm

Chromosomal Sex

Gonadal Sex

Phenotypic Sex

slide15

Chromosomal Sex

Gonadal Sex

Phenotypic Sex

Hormonal Sex

Brain and/or Behavioral Sex

Sex Determination: The Jost Paradigm

Chromosomal Sex

Gonadal Sex

Phenotypic Sex

chromosomal sex
Chromosomal Sex
  • Single Pair of sex chromosomes
    • mammals, some but not all vertebrates
  • Sex is environmentally determined
    • sea worms, fish, reptiles
  • Multiple sex chromosomes
    • invertebrates, insects, reptiles
  • Haplodiploidy
    • bees, spiders
slide17

Chromosomal Sex

  • A. Drosophila
    • Sex depends on the number of X chromosomes
      • X or XY or XO = Male
      • XX or XXX or XXY = Female
slide18

Chromosomal Sex

  • A. Drosophila
    • Sex depends on the number of X chromosomes
      • X or XY or XO = Male
      • XX or XXX or XXY = Female
  • B. Human (mammals)
    • XY or XXY or XXYY or XXXY = Male (testis)
    • XX or XXX = Female (ovary)
    • XO = Female with incomplete ovarian development
    • XXY or XXYY or XXXY or XXXXY = testis but impaired sperm production
slide19

Chromosomal Sex

  • A. Drosophila
    • Sex depends on the number of X chromosomes
      • X or XY or XO = Male
      • XX or XXX or XXY = Female
  • B. Human (mammals)
    • XY or XXY or XXYY or XXXY = Male (testis)
    • XX or XXX = Female (ovary)
    • XO = Female with incomplete ovarian development
    • XXY or XXYY or XXXY or XXXXY = testis but impaired sperm production
  • C. Conclusion
    • The gene that controls testicular differentiation is on the Y chromosome in mammals.
slide21

The Y Chromosome

A. Region coding for testicular development

  • Short arm of Y chromosome
  • H-Y Antigen
    • no longer believed to be involved
  • SRY
    • Codes for a DNA binding protein
    • acts as a transcription factor
    • Causes
      • primary sex chord (seminiferous tubule) development
      • Development of Sertoli Cells
      • Anti-Mullerian Hormone production by Sertoli Cells
    • absence of SRY
      • 2nd sex chords (egg nests) develop
the y chromosome cont
The Y Chromosome Cont.

B. Other genes on the Y chromosome

  • Spermatogenesis
  • androgen production
  • long bone growth
sry and birds
SRY and Birds
  • Birds
    • females ZW, males ZZ
    • W chromosome determines sex
    • SRY is found on the Z chromosome !
  • SRY is not the only sex determining gene in animals
slide25

Testis Determining Factor

(SRY gene product)

XY Male

Testes develop

slide26

Testicular Development

Mesonephric Tubules

Mesonephric Duct

(Wolffian Duct)

Rete Tubules

Mullerian Duct

Tunica

Albuginea

Undifferentiated

Sex Chords

slide27

Mesonephric

Tubules

Rete Tubules

Wolffian

Duct

  • Primary, Epithelial or
  • Medullary Sex Chords
  • Primordial germ cells (gonocytes)
  • Pre-Sertoli Cells

Mullerian Duct

Tunica

Albuginea

slide30

Sertoli cells secrete

anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)

AMH causes leydig

cells to differentiate

Testosterone

Development of male

duct system

Testis Determining Factor

(SRY gene product)

XY Male

Testes develop

slide31

Wolffian Duct Cells

Nucleus

T

Testis

T

TR

slide32

Rete Tubules

Efferent Ducts

(Vas Efferentia)

Epididymis

Seminiferous

Tubules

Vas

Deferens

Tunica

Albuginea

slide33

Sertoli cells secrete

anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)

AMH causes leydig

cells to differentiate

Degeneration of

Mullerian duct

Testosterone

Development of male

duct system

Testis Determining Factor

(SRY gene product)

XY Male

Testes develop

female development

Ovaries Develop

Wolffian Ducts

Regress

No AMH

No

Testosterone

Mullerian ducts become

the oviducts, uterus, cervix

and part of the vagina

Female Development

No TDF

Testes Determining Factor

XX Female

slide36

Ovarian Development

Regressing

Tubules

Mullerian

Duct

Primary or

Epithelial

Sex Chords

Future Ovarian

Cortex

Wolffian

Duct

slide37

Regressing

Tubules

Mullerian

Duct

Regressing

Epithelial

Sex Chords

Future Ovarian

Cortex

Regressing

Wolffian

Duct

slide38

Regressing

Tubules

Primordial

Follicles

Mullerian

Duct

Regressing

Epithelial

Sex Chords

Future Ovarian

Cortex

Regressing

Wolffian

Duct

Secondary or Cortical Sex Chords

(egg nests)

slide39

Primordial

Follicles

Mullerian

Duct

Ovarian

Medulla

Ovarian

Cortex

Regressing

Wolffian

Duct

slide41

Development

of the Uterus, Cervix

and Vagina

Mullerian Duct

slide44

Reproductive tract develops outside the

peritoneum!

Broad Ligament Development

(transverse anterior section)

Ovary

Regressing

Wolffian Duct

Mullerian

Duct

slide45

Ovary

Regressing

Wolffian

Duct

Mullerian

Duct

slide46

(Posterior Transverse Section)

Genital Fold

(Future Broad Ligament)

Regressing

Wolffian

Duct

Mullerian

Duct

slide47

Testis Determining Factor

(SRY gene product)

No TDF

XX Female

XY Male

Testes develop

Ovaries Develop

No

Testosterone

No AMH

Sertoli cells secrete

anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)

AMH causes leydig

cells to differentiate

Degeneration of

Mullerian duct

Degeneration of

Wolffian duct

Mullerian ducts become

the oviducts, uterus, cervix

and part of the vagina

Testosterone

Development of male

duct system

slide49

Testis Determining Factor

(SRY gene product)

XY Male

Testes develop

Sertoli cells secrete

anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)

AMH causes leydig

cells to differentiate

Degeneration of

Mullerian Duct

Testosterone

Development of male

duct system

slide50

Dihydrotestosterone

Development of penis

scrotum and accessory

sex glands

Testis Determining Factor

(SRY gene product)

XY Male

Testes develop

Sertoli cells secrete

anti-mullerian hormone (AMH)

AMH causes leydig

cells to differentiate

Degeneration of

Mullerian Duct

Testosterone

Development of male

duct system

slide51

Wolffian Duct Cells

Nucleus

T

Testis

T

TR

slide52

Accessory Sex Glands* and External Genitalia Cells

Nucleus

T

Testis

D

T

DR

5-

Reductase

*Prostate, Cowper’s Gland