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CHO Metabolism. CHO Metabolism. CHO constitute 70% or more of the DM Major precursor of energy Partitioning CHO into fiber & non-fiber. CHO Metabolism. Optimal utilization of diets influenced by: - Chemical composition - Physical characteristics (particle size & density

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Cho metabolism1
CHO Metabolism

  • CHO constitute 70% or more of the DM

  • Major precursor of energy

  • Partitioning CHO into fiber & non-fiber


Cho metabolism2
CHO Metabolism

  • Optimal utilization of diets influenced by:

    - Chemical composition

    - Physical characteristics (particle size & density

    - Physical characteristics can influence: animal health, ruminal fermentation & utilization, &animal performance.


Cho metabolism


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CHO Metabolism

  •  Fiber   Chewing   Acid Production

  •  Fiber   Chewing   Salivary buffer   Ruminal pH   A:P ratio   milk fat


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Cho metabolism

  • Neutral Detergent Soluble CHOH

  • A calculated value:

  • NDSC = 100 - (%NDF+%CP+%Fat+%Ash)

    • NDF corrected for protein

      • 98% potentially digestible in the rumen

      • Rapidly fermented in the rumen

      • Diverse group and not easily measured directly in feeds

      • Not all digested by mammalian enzymes


Cho metabolism

Effective Fiber

refer to ability of fiber to maintain milk fat production and animal health effectively


Cho metabolism

Physical effective NDF (peNDF)=

related to physical characteristics of fiber (primarily particle size) that influence chewing activity and the biphasic nature of ruminal contents (floating mat of large particles on a pool of liquid and small particles)


Cho metabolism

  • peNDF is a more restricted term and concept than NDF


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Cho metabolism


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CHO Metabolism has no ability to maintain milk fat percentage , to values greater than 1.0 when a feed maintain milk fat percentage more effectively than it maintain chewing activity.

  • Logically peNDF and eNDF should be highly correlated

  • eNDF can be greater than peNDF for feeds that maintain milk fat percentage but do not stimulate chewing activity to a similar extent (e.g., feeds containing fats or intrinsic buffering capacity).


Cho metabolism

  • Conversely, eNDF can be less than peNDF for feeds that detrimentally affect ruminal fermentation and milk fat production without affecting chewing activity (e.g., feeds containing sugars).

  • Non-fiber facotrs of feeds that influence milk fat synthesis are included in eNDF, but not peNDF.


Cho metabolism

  • Because eNDF is related to intrinsic pH buffering and neutralizing capacity, fat concentration and composition, acid producing during fermentation, pH changes reflecting the balance of buffering capacity and acid production, shift in VFA amounts and ratio produced, and metabolic changes that influence secretion of milk fat


Laboratory assessment of fiber effectiveness
Laboratory assessment of fiber effectiveness neutralizing capacity, fat concentration and composition, acid producing during fermentation, pH changes reflecting the balance of buffering capacity and acid production, shift in VFA amounts and ratio produced, and metabolic changes that influence secretion of milk fat

  • NDF method proposed by Robertson and Van Soest

  • Particles retained on a 1.18 mm sieve have a high resistance to passage from the rumen of both cattle and sheep


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Biological assessment of fiber effectiveness
Biological Assessment of Fiber Effectiveness separator

  • First step is developing a scale for assessing pe is to define a reference against which all feeds are compared


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Measurement of in vivo digestion kinetics 80% of the unchopped forage.

Total tract digestibility

direct: total fecal collection

indirect:markers


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CHO Metabolism 80% of the unchopped forage.

  • peNDF is related to fiber concentration, particle size, and particle size reduction, so peNDF is related to the formation of ruminal mat, which may be a critical factor for selectively retaining fiber in the rumen, determining the dynamics of ruminal fermentation and passage and stimulating rumination.