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POLICING TERRORISM: A THREAT TO COMMUNITY POLICING OR JUST A SHIFT IN PRIORITIES?. PRESENTED TO THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE EXECUTIVE TENTH ANNUAL MEETING THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN 11 – 15 OCTOBER, 2003. BY JOHN MURRAY APM, BA, LLB, MBA, GCLP CHIEF POLICE OFFICER AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY.

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policing terrorism a threat to community policing or just a shift in priorities

POLICING TERRORISM:A THREAT TO COMMUNITY POLICING OR JUST A SHIFT IN PRIORITIES?

PRESENTED TO

THE INTERNATIONAL POLICE EXECUTIVE TENTH ANNUAL MEETING

THE KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN

11 – 15 OCTOBER, 2003

BY

JOHN MURRAYAPM, BA, LLB, MBA, GCLP

CHIEF POLICE OFFICER

AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY

introduction
INTRODUCTION
  • SHIFT FROM TRADITIONAL TO COMMUNITY POLICING
  • POST SEPTEMBER 11 – CHANGE IN PUBLIC FACE OF POLICING
  • WILL EXAMINE/CONTRAST TRADITIONAL & COMMUNITY POLICING
  • EXAMINE CHALLENGES TO COMMUNITY POLICING
      • PUBLIC EXPECTATIONS
      • GOVERNMENT POLICY
      • POLICE CULTURE
  • EXAMINE IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON COMMUNITY POLICING
  • CURRENT ENVIRONMENT - THE VALUE OF COMMUNITY POLICING
transition from traditional to community policing
TRANSITIONFROM TRADITIONAL TO COMMUNITY POLICING

PEEL PRINCIPLES OF EARLY POLICING

COOPERATION

PARTNERSHIP

“CONSENT”

PRINCIPLES APPLY TODAY BUT THE NOTION OF MILITARISM IS STILL THE BASIS OF MOST FORCES / SERVICES

transition from traditional to community policing4
TRANSITIONFROM TRADITIONAL TO COMMUNITY POLICING

LIMITATIONS OF TRADITIONAL POLICING

  • PREDOMINENTLY REACTIVE
  • EMPHASIS ON ARREST AS SUCCESS INDICATOR
  • INABILITY TO GET CLOSE TO COMMUNITY – ACTION ORIENTATION
  • CUMBERSOME BUREAUCRACY

WHEREAS IN COMMUNITY POLICING

  • CRIME PREVENTION AS EMPHASIS
  • PROBLEM SOLVING AS WELL AS ARREST
  • CLOSE TO COMMUNITY - SERVICE ORIENTATION
  • DEVOLUTION OF AUTHORITY & FREEDOM TO ACT

(Moore 1994)

community policing
COMMUNITY POLICING
  • WHILE NO SINGLE DEFINITION THERE TENDS TO BE:
      • COMMUNITY BASED PREVENTION
      • PROACTIVE POLICING
      • INCREASED ACCOUNTABILITY TO THE PUBLIC
      • DECENTRALISED POLICE WITH EXTENSIVE AUTHORITY TO ACT ON OWN INITIATIVE

(Skolnick & Bayley, 1998)

police culture
POLICE CULTURE
  • POLICING – TOO IMPORTANT TO BE TAKEN FOR GRANTED OR IGNORED

(Van Maanen, 1978)

  • HIGH LEVELS OF DISCRETION AT LOWEST LEVEL OR ORGANISATION
  • SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON LIVES/LIBERTIES OF CITIZENS
  • MOST POLICE DECISIONS ARE WITHOUT OVERSIGHT/SCRUTINY
police culture a bias towards traditional policing
POLICE CULTUREA BIAS TOWARDS TRADITIONAL POLICING?
  • RECOGNISED BY SOCIETY & THEMSELVES AS HAVING IDENTIFIABLE COMPLEX OF VALUES, COMMUNICATION SYMBOLS, TECHNIQUES, & BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS

(McBride, 1995)

  • “WORKING PERSONALITY” – SUSPICIOUSNESS, INTERNAL SOLIDARITY, SOCIAL ISOLATION, CONSERVATISM

(Skolnick, 1966)

  • SENSE OF MISSION, ACTION ORIENTATION, CYNICISM, SUSPICIOUSNESS, ISOLATED SOCIAL LIFE, CONSERVATISM

(Reiner, 1992)

  • SUPPORTED TO VARYING DEGREES

Goldstein (1976), Fitzgerald (1989), Goldsmith (1990),

Skolnick & Fyfe (1993) and Wood (1997)

slide8

IDEAL PROFILE FOR COMMUNITY POLICE OFFICERS

RESEARCH PROFILE FOR OPERATIONAL POLICE

Commitment to community consultation and problem solving.

A sense of mission about police work but a distancing from the rest of the community.

Open and accessible in the provision of a service.

Suspiciousness.

Creative and innovative in promoting solutions to problems and crime prevention.

A pragmatic view of police work which discourages innovation and experimentation

Freedom to exercise discretion at the lowest level of policing so as to incorporate a problem-solving mentality as an alternative to arrest.

A preference for action orientation and arrests.

Excellent communication skills so as to be able to develop a rapport with the community, and in turn win respect and trust.

An isolated social life coupled with a strong code of solidarity with other police officers. A cynical or pessimistic perspective about their social environment.

culture and alignment to policing models
CULTURE AND ALIGNMENT TO POLICING MODELS

TRADITIONAL POLICING AND LINKS TO PARAMILITARISM

COMMUNITY POLICING AND DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT

CULTURE – CONTRASTING AND COMPARING

Policing as a craft

Traditionally policing regarded as craft / trade - best learned ‘on the job’.

Policing as a Profession

Conscious drive for policing to be accepted as a ‘profession’.

Culture Developed on the Job

With traditional policing - reliance on status quo - learning from experienced officers. With community policing - more ‘open’ culture which places reliance on community expectations.

culture and alignment to policing models10
CULTURE AND ALIGNMENT TO POLICING MODELS

TRADITIONAL POLICING AND LINKS TO PARAMILITARISM

COMMUNITY POLICING AND DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT

CULTURE – CONTRASTING AND COMPARING

Paramilitary Management Style

Traditional policing - based either entirely on military lines or at least draw on their principles.

Democratic Management Style

While command & control is necessary - these situations are relatively few and management allows contribution from all ranks as to how the job is done.

Empowered or Disempowered Culture

A paramilitary culture assumes that authority is linked to rank. With a democratic style management culture – confidence and genuine participation.

culture and alignment to policing models11
CULTURE AND ALIGNMENT TO POLICING MODELS

TRADITIONAL POLICING AND LINKS TO PARAMILITARISM

COMMUNITY POLICING AND DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT

CULTURE – CONTRASTING AND COMPARING

Authoritarian Approach to Policing

Traditional policing promotes strict enforcement of laws, little concern about the causes of crime, limited prosecutorial discretion, and less emphasis on preventing crime.

Problem Solving Approach to Policing

Here there is an understanding what causes crime and there is a conscious commitment to joining with the community to prevent crime.

  • Linking Culture to the Philosophy
  • In traditional policing - tendency for authoritarianism, defensism, cynicism and action-orientation which result in a distancing from the community. In community policing the culture is open, consultative and geared to solving problems.
culture and alignment to policing models12
CULTURE AND ALIGNMENT TO POLICING MODELS

TRADITIONAL POLICING AND LINKS TO PARAMILITARISM

COMMUNITY POLICING AND DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT

CULTURE – CONTRASTING AND COMPARING

Inflexible Structure

In the traditional model, there tends to be a rigid, centralised bureaucracy with officers working to predetermined rules and practices.

Flexible Structure

Community policing devolves authority and decision-making which encourages initiative. Officers work to values and standards.

From Compliant to Adaptive Culture

With traditional policing, the culture tends to be regimented and compliant. Community policing is adaptive recognizing that there is usually no single solution to problems/issues.

culture and alignment to policing models13
CULTURE AND ALIGNMENT TO POLICING MODELS

TRADITIONAL POLICING AND LINKS TO PARAMILITARISM

COMMUNITY POLICING AND DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT

CULTURE – CONTRASTING AND COMPARING

Blame Culture

The paramilitary model of policing assumes that police officers will inevitably do something wrong and when they do they should be punished.

Learning Culture

A learning culture recognises the failure of the punitive model and educates/corrects minor and understandable breaches rather than punish.

From Institutional to Personal Discipline

The punitive model creates

apprehension, anxiety, defensiveness and denial. An ‘us-them (management)’ culture results. In a learning culture officers work to values and minor breaches are regarded as curable mistakes – a move from threat to incentive.

culture and alignment to policing models14
CULTURE AND ALIGNMENT TO POLICING MODELS

TRADITIONAL POLICING AND LINKS TO PARAMILITARISM

COMMUNITY POLICING AND DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT

CULTURE – CONTRASTING AND COMPARING

Insularity and Defensiveness

In traditional policing there is a tendency towards the notion that police are the only ones who know anything about policing. Academics or other commentators are not appreciated.

Openness and Consultation

In community policing other expert advice is invited and individual police contributions are considered worthwhile.

Move Towards Transparency

With traditional police - defensive culture - a tendency towards craft secrecy. Inherent in CP - police are part of the community and a desired culture is one which recognizes and works to a model that allows the public to know how and why the police operate the way they do.

moves towards militarism prior to september 11
MOVES TOWARDS MILITARISM PRIOR TO SEPTEMBER 11
  • A LAISSEZ FAIRE ATTITUDE TO NATIONAL SECURITY
  • THOUGH:
    • A SPAWNING CULTURE OF PARAMILITARISM (USA)

(Weber,1999)

    • ‘VELVET GLOVE’ COVERING THE ‘IRON FIST’ OF MILITARY STYLE OF POLICING (AUSTRALIA)

(McCulloch, 2001)

  • COMMUNITY POLICING & UNITS OF PARAMILITARISM CAN / SHOULD COEXIST
specific challenges to community policing in terrorist environment
SPECIFIC CHALLENGES TO COMMUNITY POLICING IN TERRORIST ENVIRONMENT
  • “ … in the context of war against terror, some tenets of community policing appear to be inconsistent with the implementation of these new police roles [though community policing should] probably not be abandoned.”

de Guzman (2002)

  • Because:
      • CP ideal is to win hearts & minds of the community – you cannot reason with terrorists
      • CP assumes community cooperation & trust – terrorism erodes that trust
      • CP needs partnerships in strategies – police will hold back & trust will be breached
      • CP is parochial – not broad enough for terrorism
slide17

ADDRESSING THE DE GUZMAN CHALLENGES

DE GUZMAN

COMMUNITY POLICING

Philosophical ideal of CP - to win the hearts and minds of the community but this will not be successful as you can’t reason with terrorists.

CP works best when sharing with the community – vast majority of any community is law abiding - to exclude or isolate any sub group amounts to failing in police responsibility – should rebuild trust with certain specific ethnic/cultural groups.

With CP there is community cooperation and trust – terrorists constantly employ deceit and police should be reluctant to invest their trust on unidentifiable forces.

Successful prevention and detection depends on information – terrorists can assume positions in the community – a CP relationship which enjoys trust and mutual respect is more likely to identify the threat/s.

CP involves a partnership with police & rest of the community & to have strategies of crime prevention & operations – with terrorism police will hold back and the mutual trust will be breached – ultimately CP will whither away.

Never expected that police will divulge details of operations – the community has a right to certain information – with terrorism, community needs to be aware of the level of threat so as to make decisions about what they do – with CP people are more likely to feel comfortable about coming forward with information.

CP is parochial and the ‘war on terror’ requires broader collaboration.

CP, when working well, adopts broader, national/international perspective.

conclusions
CONCLUSIONS
  • TRADITIONAL POLICING RELIES ON PARAMILITARISM – PREDOMINANTLY REACTIVE – UNABLE TO DEVELOP & SUSTAIN COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIP
  • COMMUNITY POLICING REFRESHING – DEMOCRATIC – POLICE IN PARTNERSHIP WITH COMMUNITY – LESS EMPHASIS ON ARREST – CONCENTRATES ON PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRIME PREVENTION
  • POLICE CULTURE SHOWS PREFERENCE FOR ACTION – LESS INTEREST IN ‘SOFT’ POLICING
  • EVEN WHERE COMMUNITY POLICING ADOPTED – CULTURE TENSION STILL EXISTS
conclusions19
CONCLUSIONS
  • AFTER SEPT 11 NEEDS TO BE A SHIFT OF EMPHASIS BUT NOT THE ABANDONMENT OF COMMUNITY POLICING
  • COMMUNITY POLICING WILL BE MORE EFFECTIVE – ESPECIALLY IN AREA OF PREVENTION
  • COMMISSIONERS / CHIEFS SHOULD BE ALERT TO PRESSURES TO REVERT TO TRADITIONAL MODEL OF POLICING – WOULD UNDUE ALL THE GOOD WORK OVER THE DECADES WHICH HAS PLACED COMMUNITY POLICING AS AN EXEMPLAR OF PUBLIC SERVICE IN A CIVIL AND DEMOCRATIC SOCIETY