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UKCCSC Meeting 18 th April Nottingham Natural analogues of CO 2 leakage from the Colorado Plateau Stuart Gilfillan, Stuart Haszeldine, Zoe Shipton and Mark Wilkinson. Key Questions. How do natural CO 2 storage sites fail? - Faults, lithology, caprock seal and groundwater regime.

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UKCCSC Meeting18th AprilNottinghamNatural analogues of CO2 leakage from the Colorado PlateauStuart Gilfillan, Stuart Haszeldine, Zoe Shipton and Mark Wilkinson

key questions
Key Questions
  • How do natural CO2 storage sites fail?

- Faults, lithology, caprock seal and groundwater regime.

  • What are the pathways of CO2 migration to the surface?

- Can we predict/prevent leakage in engineered sites?

  • How long does CO2 migration to the surface take?

- CO2 needs to be stored for 10,000 years.

  • Can leakage of CO2 be monitored and quantified?

- Which chemical tracers can be used.

- How effective are they at monitoring natural CO2 leakage?

colorado plateau1
Colorado Plateau

Green River Seeps and Salt Wash fault zone, Utah

colorado plateau2
Colorado Plateau

Green River Seeps and Salt Wash fault zone, Utah

  • Cold water springs and geysers driven by pressure of CO2.

- Gas is 95 - 99% CO2- 0.5 - 3.5 % N2- Trace noble gases.

  • CO2 release from > 80ka.
  • Where does this water and CO2 originate from?
  • How is this CO2 being transported to the surface?

Crystal geyser, Utah

origin of the water
Origin of the Water?
  • Salinity of erupted water indicates migration of water from deep aquifer.
origin of the water1
Origin of the Water?

Deep

aquifer

Shallow

aquifer

origin of the co 2
Origin of the CO2?

From Ballentine et al. 2002

3He

Magmatic Component

origin of the co 21
Origin of the CO2?

From Ballentine et al. 2002

Atmospheric Component

20Ne

36Ar

84Kr

AquiferRecharge

3He

Magmatic Component

Formation Water

slide10

Atmospheric Component

20Ne

36Ar

84Kr

AquiferRecharge

3He

Magmatic Component

Formation Water

Origin of the CO2?

From Ballentine et al. 2002

Accumulate

in groundwater

4He

21Ne

40Ar

In-situ

production

Radiogenic

Component

origin of the co 2 co 2 3 he ratio
Origin of the CO2 – CO2/3He ratio
  • Mantle CO2/3He range: 1 x 109 – 1 x 1010
  • Measured from Mid Ocean Ridge Basalts - MORBs
origin of the co 2 co 2 3 he ratio1
Origin of the CO2 – CO2/3He ratio

1.00e+12

1.00e+11

1.00e+10

1.00e+9

1.00e+8

1.00e+7

1.00e+6

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

CO

Concentration (%)

2

Above 1 x 1010:

Crustal CO2

Mantle (MORB) range: 1 x 109 – 1 x 1010

CO2/3He Ratio

Below 1 x 109: CO2

lost relative to 3He.

origin of the co 2 co 2 3 he ratio2
Origin of the CO2 – CO2/3He ratio

1.00e+12

Green River Seeps

1 - 16%

Mantle CO2

1.00e+11

1.00e+10

Mantle (MORB) range: 1 x 109 – 1 x 1010

Mantle (MORB) range: 1 x 109 – 1 x 1010

CO2/3He Ratio

1.00e+9

1.00e+8

1.00e+7

1.00e+6

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

CO

Concentration (%)

2

  • Predominantly crustal derived CO2 erupted from the Green River seeps.
  • Small mantle component → 1 – 16%
other natural analogues of co 2 leakage
Other natural analogues of CO2 leakage

Hurricane Fault, Utah

  • Active, steeply dipping normal fault ~ 250 km long, ~2.5 km displacement.
  • CO2 & 40°C water discharges from fault zone.
  • Noble gas and δ13C (CO2) analysis underway.
  • No evidence of a CO2 reservoir at depth.

Hurricane fault looking north www.skytrailsranch.com

other natural analogues of co 2 leakage1
Other natural analogues of CO2 leakage

Hurricane Fault, Utah

  • Active, steeply dipping normal fault ~ 250 km long, ~2.5 km displacement.
  • CO2 & 40°C water discharges from fault zone.
  • Noble gas and δ13C (CO2) analysis underway.
  • No evidence of a CO2 reservoir at depth.

St. Johns Dome

  • Large natural CO2 reservoir (445 billion m3).
  • CO2 rich surface seeps and travertines.
  • Composition of deep gas and waters known.
  • Can natural CO2 can be chemically tagged? e.g. using δ13C(CO2) and/or noble gases.
st johns dome workflow
St. Johns Dome Workflow
  • Water samples collected from 18 surface seeps

- 14C & tritium for groundwater dating.

- Solute chemistry.

- Noble gas, δ13C(CO2), δ18O and δD isotopes.

  • Compare composition of surface seeps to known chemistry of reservoir fluids.
  • Use geochemical modeling to determine and quantify mineralogy changes as CO2 migrates.
  • Reservoir models underway to investigate CO2 migration pathways and timescales.
summary
Summary
  • How do natural CO2 storage sites fail?

- Primary mechanism is migration along fault planes.

  • What are the pathways of CO2 migration to the surface?

- CO2 is dissolved into the groundwater and transported along faults.

  • How long does CO2 migration to the surface take?

- Unknown at present, dating of CO2 deposits will hopefully provide a timeframe.

  • Can leakage of CO2 be monitored and quantified?

- Yes, a baseline geochemical survey helps a lot!