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Movements Related to Differential Reproductive Strategies in Male and Female Sonoran Mud Turtles ( Kinosternon sonoriense ) Kenneth J. Locey, Paul A. Stone, Marie E. Stone, Brian D. Stanila Department of Biology, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034. Introduction.

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slide1

Movements Related to Differential Reproductive Strategies in Male and Female Sonoran Mud Turtles (Kinosternon sonoriense)Kenneth J. Locey, Paul A. Stone, Marie E. Stone, Brian D. Stanila Department of Biology, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034

introduction
Introduction
  • Reproductive Effort
    • Energy expended towards finding and competing for mates, and towards provisioning offspring
  • Female-biased Parental Effort:
    • Anisogamy requires females to allocate energy to egg production
  • Male-biased Mating Effort:
    • Anisogamy allows males to allocate energy to finding and / or competing for mates
introduction1
Introduction
  • Differential reproductive strategies of males and females
  • “Ecological constraints impose limits on the degree to which sexual selection can operate”
    • (Emlen and Oring, 1977)
sonoran mud turtle kinosternon sonoriense
Sonoran Mud Turtle - Kinosternon sonoriense

Introduction

  • Adults: 168 mm carapace length, maximum
  • 1-2 clutches of eggs per year, 6-7 eggs per clutch
  • Max life-span: 20+ ?
slide5
These environmental conditions impose ecological constraints on the reproductive efforts of K. sonoriense
contexts for differential reproductive strategies in kinosternids
Contexts for differential reproductive strategies in Kinosternids

Male biased vagility as a result of mate searching has been previously reported in K. baurii(Tuberville, Gibbons, and Greene (1996)

Asynchronous Aquatic Activity in K. sonoriense(Peterson and Stone, 2000)

Female S. odoratus have the ability to store sperm (Gist and Congdon, 1998)

Forced Aestivation - Turtles survive complete drying of habitats by burying themselves on land (Peterson and Stone, 2000)

introduction2
Introduction
  • Spatiotemporal distribution of resources affects the success of female K. sonoriense
    • selection for females that seek resources and copulate enough to maintain stores of sperm
  • Spatiotemporal distribution of females affects success of male K. sonoriense
    • Selection for males that seek females and will attempt long distance movements to find females that have not been copulated with
introduction3
Introduction
  • Hypothesis: The movements of male and female Sonoran Mud Turtles support the predictions of sexual selection theory
  • Two main predictions:
    • Males make longer movements within canyons than females
    • Males make more frequent movements between canyons than females
blackwater canyon july 2006
Blackwater Canyon -July 2006

Canyons and Stock tanks are prone to rapid and extreme changes in water availability

data collection
Data Collection
  • Mark-recapture efforts in the Peloncillo Mountains since 1994.
  • Hoop nets placed in stock tanks and baited with sardines
  • Hand-captures from canyon pools and streams
data collection1
Data Collection
  • Blackwater Canyon mapped in ’94 with compass and tape, and again in ’07 with GPS.
  • Spatial environment created in ArcMap 9.2
  • Georeference locations and waypoints in ArcMap
  • Measure Maximum Recorded Distance Moved for Individuals captured 5 or more times. One-tailed t-test.
  • Examine frequency and demography of inter-canyon migrations with one-tailed binomial test.
results1
Results
  • Males moved farther than females,

t86 = 4.235, P = 2.85E-5

  • Males made inter-canyon movements more often than females

Cα(1),27 = 8, P = 6.015E-4

discussion
Discussion
  • Differences in movement of male and female K. sonoriense support the predictions of sexual selection theory
  • Males compete indirectly for mates
future analyses
Future Analyses
  • Sexual selection hypotheses of differential reproductive strategies as responses to ephemeral resources
    • Scramble competition
  • Hydrological study
    • Quantify water availability
  • Estimates of recapture and survival with respect to sex and water availability
    • Program MARK
acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • We thank everyone involved with data collection efforts for their assistance, and the Joe Jackson College of Graduate Studies and Research at UCO for support