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Data Acquisition Systems. Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Data Acquisition Systems

  • Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer.
  • Data acquisition systems (abbreviated with the acronym DAS or DAQ) typically convert analog waveforms into digital values for processing.
contd data acquisition system
A data acquisition system consists of many components that are integrated to:

Sense physical variables (use of transducers)

Condition the electrical signal to make it readable by an A/D board.

Convert the signal into a digital format acceptable by a computer

Process, analyze, store, and display the acquired data with the help of software

Contd. Data Acquisition System
data acquisition system
Data Acquisition System

Signal Conditioner

Analog Signal

ADC

Digital Processing

Communication

sensor transducers
Sensors that convert physical parameters to electrical signals

Sense physical phenomena and translate it into electric signal.

  • The components of data acquisition systems include:
Sensor(Transducers)
  • Displacement
  • Level
  • Electric signals
  • ON/OFF switch
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • Light
  • Force
signal conditioning
Signal conditioning circuitry to convert sensor signals into a form that can be converted to digital values.

Functions: modify the analog signal to match the performance of the ADC

Pre-filtering: remove undesirable high frequency components

Amplification: amplify the signal to match the dynamic range of the ADC

Signal Conditioning
analog to digital conversion
Analog-to-Digital Conversion
  • Most signals are naturally analog (e.g. a voltage)
  • Digital techniques are often more useful: data storage, processing, computing, error free signal transmission etc.
  • We need ways to convert analog signals to digital
  • Want A/D converters to be fast, accurate and cheap
  • Before a computer can process analog information, we must first use an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) to transform the analog values into digital binary values.
data acquisition software
It can be the most critical factor in obtaining reliable, high performance operation.

Transforms the PC and DAQ hardware into a complete DAQ, analysis, and display system.

Different alternatives:

Programmable software.

Data acquisition software packages.

Data Acquisition Software
slide9

Successive-approximation A/D converter

  • The successive approximation ADC has been the mainstay of data acquisition systems for many years.
  • A successive approximation ADC is a type of analog-to-digital converter that converts a continuous analog waveform into a discrete digital representation via a binary search through all possible quantization levels before finally converging upon a digital output for each conversion.
slide10

Contd. Successive-approximation A/D converter

  • The successive-approximation A/D converter consists of:
  • D/A converter
  • Comparator
  • Success-approximation register .
  • Conversion process starts at Maximum range (MSB) and steps down through a defined sequence to the (LSB) until correct reading is found using a DAC and an analog comparator circuit.
slide11

Contd. Successive-approximation A/D converter

  • Successive Approximation ADC Block Diagram.
  • Key
  • DAC = Digital-to-Analog converter
  • EOC = end of conversion
  • SAR = successive approximation register
  • S/H = sample and hold circuit
  • Vin = input voltage
  • Vref = reference voltage
slide12

Contd. Successive-approximation A/D converter

  • The successive approximation Analog to digital converter circuit typically consists of four chief sub circuits:
  • A sample and hold circuit to acquire the input voltage (Vin).
  • An analog voltage comparator that compares Vin to the output of the internal DAC and outputs the result of the comparison to the successive approximation register (SAR).
slide13

Contd. Successive-approximation A/D converter

  • A successive approximation register sub circuit designed to supply an approximate digital code of Vin to the internal DAC.
  • An internal reference DAC that, for comparison with VREF, supplies the comparator with an analog voltage equal to the digital code output of the SARin.
slide14

Operation of the successive-approximation A/D converter

  • The successive approximation register is initialized so that the most significant bit (MSB) is equal to a digital 1.
  • This code is fed into the DAC, which then supplies the analog equivalent of this digital code (Vref/2) into the comparator circuit for comparison with the sampled input voltage.
  • If this analog voltage exceeds Vin the comparator causes the SAR to reset this bit; otherwise, the bit is left a 1.
slide15

Operation of the successive-approximation A/D converter

  • Then the next bit is set to 1 and the same test is done, continuing this binary search until every bit in the SAR has been tested.
  • The resulting code is the digital approximation of the sampled input voltage and is finally output by the SAR at the end of the conversion (EOC).
successive approximation adc example

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Goal: Find digital value Vin
  • 8-bit ADC
  • Vin = 7.65
  • Vfull scale = 10
successive approximation adc example1

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vfull scale = 10, Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 7
    • (Vfull scale +0)/2 = 5
    • 7.65 > 5  Bit 7 = 1
successive approximation adc example2

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vfull scale = 10, Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 6
    • (Vfull scale +5)/2 = 7.5
    • 7.65 > 7.5  Bit 6 = 1
successive approximation adc example3

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vfull scale = 10, Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 5
    • (Vfull scale +7.5)/2 = 8.75
    • 7.65 < 8.75  Bit 5 = 0
successive approximation adc example4

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 4
    • (8.75+7.5)/2 8.125
    • 7.65 < 8.125  Bit 4 = 0
successive approximation adc example5

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 3
    • (8.125+7.5)/2 = 7.8125
    • 7.65 < 7.8125  Bit 3 = 0
successive approximation adc example6

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 2
    • (7.8125+7.5)/2 = 7.65625
    • 7.65 < 7.65625  Bit 2 = 0
successive approximation adc example7

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 1
    • (7.65625+7.5)/2 = 7.578125
    • 7.65 > 7.578125  Bit 1 = 1
successive approximation adc example8

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • Vin = 7.65
  • MSB  LSB
    • Average high/low limits
    • Compare to Vin
      • Vin > Average  MSB = 1
      • Vin < Average  MSB = 0
  • Bit 0
    • (7.65625+7.578125)/2 = 7.6171875
    • 7.65 > 7.6171875  Bit 0 = 1
successive approximation adc example9

Successive Approximation ADC Example

  • 110000112 = 19510
  • 8-bits, 28 = 256
  • Digital Output
    • 195/256 = 0.76171875
  • Analog Input
    • 7.65/10 = 0.765
exercise
Given an analog input signal whose voltage should range from 0 to 15 volts, and an 8-bit digital encoding, calculate the approximate encoding for 5 volts. Trace the successive-approximation approach to find the correct encoding.Exercise
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