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Single Subject Research Design in a School System. Sandra Rogers, Ph.D., OTR School of Occupational Therapy Pacific University. Objectives. Review single-subject research design (SSRD) Highlight clinical utility of SSRD and provide examples of use in pediatrics

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single subject research design in a school system

Single Subject Research Design in a School System

Sandra Rogers, Ph.D., OTR

School of Occupational Therapy

Pacific University

objectives
Objectives
  • Review single-subject research design (SSRD)
  • Highlight clinical utility of SSRD and provide examples of use in pediatrics
  • Problem solving to identify clients, treatment strategies to allow recording
  • Identify possible methods to implement as a school-wide data collection system
single subject research design
Systematic data collection in the natural setting.

Independent variable (treatment) is identified and operationally defined

Dependent measure (outcome) is identified and operationally defined

Demographic information collected

Design selection determines how variables will be manipulated

Data must be accurately & reliably collected

Data must be appropriately analyzed

Make comparisons between treatment and no treatment

Single Subject Research Design
characteristics of single subject research design
Characteristics of Single Subject Research Design
  • Involve only 1 person or a small group that is treated as a unit
  • Comparisons are made within subjects not between subjects
  • Responses to intervention are recorded repeatedly over a period of time
  • Responses to intervention are collected at regular intervals
  • Subject feedback is carefully monitored.
  • Process is studied as well as outcome.
characteristics continued
Characteristics Continued
  • Modifications in design and measurement are possible during the study, are individual and flexible.
  • Findings are directly relevant to a specified patient, can not generalize to other subjects.
  • Emphasis is on knowledge for immediate, practical use.
  • Costs are small and procedures are usually incorporated as part of a clinical routine.
  • Limitations are present
ssr design
SSR Design
  • Independent variable is the intervention
  • Dependent variable is the target variable
  • Dependent variable must be observable, quantifiable, and a valid indicator or treatment effectiveness
ssr design used to
SSR Design Used to:
  • Study comparisons between several treatments
  • Between components of treatments
  • Between treatment and no treatment
  • Sequential activities-training strategies or techniques to shape behaviors
  • Lots of design flexibility
repeated measures
Repeated measures
  • Systematic collection of repeated measures of a behavior over time
  • Regular intervals
    • Once a day
    • Twice during treatment session
    • Once a week

Required to observe the trend in data and evaluate the variability

design phases
Design Phases
  • Two phases
  • Baseline phase
  • Intervention phase
  • Target behavior (dependent variable) is repeatedly measured across both phases
  • Plotted on a graph
baseline phase
Baseline Phase
  • Stability
    • Consistency over time
    • Most desired to have a consistent level of behavior with minimal variablity
  • Trend
    • Changes over baseline indicate the trend of the intervention
ssr designs
SSR Designs
  • AB
  • ABA
  • ABAB
  • BAB
  • Multiple baseline
implementation process
Implementation process
  • Identify a clinical interest/irritation
  • Identify a strategy (independent variable).
  • Identify an expected outcome measure (dependent variable)
  • Select a design
  • Select method to analyze
  • Write up results, interpret & share
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