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  1. REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST Chinese Dynasties Pre-Columbian American Empires The Mongols

  2. REVIEW FOR THE UNIT 5 TEST INSTRUCTIONS: Go through the slides and answer each question in the packet; the slide numbers are listed for each question

  3. The Olmecs Mesoamerica is an area of Central America and Mexico where the Olmecs and later civilizations like the Mayans and Aztecs were based

  4. The Olmecs were considered the “mother culture” because they influenced later civilizations, such as the Mayans and Aztecs

  5. The Mayans invented a system of writing based on pictures called glyphs; this pictogram form of writing is similar to the system used by the Ancient Egyptians (and the two societies had NOTHING to do with each other, being located thousands of miles apart)

  6. The Aztecs survived on tribute from people they conquered and also by farming; they built “floating gardens” in Lake Texcoco (called “chinampas”)

  7. Aztecs worshipped many gods, especially the sun god; they made thousands of human sacrifices each year to the sun god A century of brutal rule over the provinces and millions of human sacrifices over the years led to hatred of the Aztecs and many revolts

  8. The Incas AZTECS INCAS While the Aztecs had their empire in Mesoamerica, the Incas had an empire of their own, dominating the area of the Andes Mountains in South America

  9. Like most other empires (such as the Romans) the Inca Empire had an extensive system of roads that connected all of the parts of their territory

  10. Using advanced technology, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and the Incas all built complex, advanced cities with elaborate temples MAYAN RUINS: “CHICHEN ITZA”

  11. Using advanced technology, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and the Incas all built complex, advanced cities with elaborate temples AZTEC CITY OF TENOCHTITLAN

  12. Using advanced technology, the Mayans, the Aztecs, and the Incas all built complex, advanced cities with elaborate temples INCAN “TEMPLE OF THE SUN”

  13. The Incas lived in the difficult physical environment of the mountains; they adapted to their environment by building cities in the mountains and connecting them with suspension bridges

  14. The Incas invented a system of record keeping (called quipu) based on knotted ropes

  15. The demise of the Aztecs and Incas came when the Spanish conquistadors arrived in America and conquered the two empires

  16. By the year 589, China was unified again and a strong central government was restored under the Tang Dynasty The Tang emperors brought back the examination system based on Confucius to find qualified, intelligent government workers

  17. Technologies such as paper-making, compasses, and gunpowder made their way outside of Asia and west by the trade route known as the Silk Road

  18. Increased trade led to cultural diffusion in Asia; China’s centralized government, Confucianism, and their writing system spread to neighboring areas, like Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia

  19. Differing from earlier dynasties like the Han, Tang and Song emperors actually encouraged foreign trade (previously, they had tried to avoid trading with foreigners)

  20. From 1405 to 1433, Zheng He explored areas along the Indian Ocean, Arabia, and East Africa, expanded trade, made contact with other cultures, and collected tribute from foreigners

  21. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, China experienced an extended “golden age”; new contributions were made in the arts and sciences

  22. The orange arrows show where Buddhism spread in Asia Increased trade helped spread Buddhism throughout China

  23. The End of China’s Golden Age The Mongols conquered China, ending their “golden age”; the Mongols would go on to create the largest land empire in human history, taking over most of Asia and parts of Europe

  24. Who were the Mongols? The Mongols were among the numerous nomadic tribes who lived in the steppes of Central Asia

  25. The Mongols lived in the Asian steppes, so Mongolia was a region where only the strong survived Steppes are dry, windy grasslands; harsh climates and extreme temperatures of the steppes were the main features of Mongolia’s geography

  26. From 1200 to 1206, Genghis Khan (“Universal Ruler”) united all of the Mongol clans under his rule Equally intelligent and vicious, Genghis Khan would lead the creation of the Mongol Empire, the largest land empire in human history

  27. As brilliant a strategist as Genghis Khan was, his greatest weapon was the spread of terror As the Mongols’ fearsome reputation spread, many towns and villages would surrender without a fight As a 13th Century historian wrote of the Mongols: “They are inhuman, more like monsters than men. They are the Devil’s Horsemen.”

  28. After conquering China, Genghis Khan and the Mongols took over most of Central Asia Future Mongol leaders after Genghis increased Mongol borders to its greatest extent, which was the largest land empire in history

  29. When the Mongols destroyed the city of Kiev, this would lead to the Russians developing the city of Moscow (which is now Russia’s capital)

  30. While merciless in battle, the Mongols were surprisingly tolerant of their conquered subjects in times of peace The Mongols never forced their way of life on conquered people; instead they often adopted cultures of those they ruled over

  31. From the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s, the rule of the Mongols was a time of peace and stability This era of stability was called “PaxMongolica”, which means “Mongol Peace” Safe passage was granted for trade caravans, travelers, and missionaries (this makes PaxMongolica similar to PaxRomana) Because of the safety of PaxMongolica, there was enormous increase in trade between Asia and Europe through the Silk Road

  32. MARCO POLO’S TRAVELS Marco Polo traveled throughout Asia and Europe, making a written record that would later increase Europe’s interest in Asian luxury goods

  33. The Muslim pilgrim Ibn Battuta, who traveled 73,000 miles in his lifetime, also kept written records of his journeys throughout Africa and Asia

  34. When Marco Polo returned to Italy in 1292, he wrote a book about his travels; his stories of China increased European demand for Asian products, which increased trade

  35. Kublai Khan began a new era in China called the Yuan Dynasty Kublai enjoyed Chinese culture so much that he moved the Mongolian capital to China However, Kublai and other Mongol rulers excluded the Chinese from serving in leadership positions; this would create Chinese resentment towards their Mongol rulers

  36. Kublai Khan proved to be a good emperor for China Under Kublai, foreign trade with China increased; he built roads and extended the Grand Canal to improve transportation

  37. A negative effect of the trade between Europe and Asia: diseases like the Plague (Black Death) made their way from Asia to Europe along the trade routes and killed millions of people

  38. THE MONGOLS’ IMPACT What were the effects of Mongol rule? • Millions of people lost their lives to the ravages of the Mongol army • However, the Mongols brought about a time of stability and peace as they ruled (“PaxMongolica”, or “Mongol Peace") • Marco Polo’s time with the Mongols increased European interest in Asia • This was good for trade, so there was more exchange of goods between Europe and Asia than ever before • Europe gained new technology (gunpowder)


  40. Chinese civilization began along the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers in North China; these rivers provided fertile soil As a result, population in China is concentrated most on the coast and near the rivers

  41. China was protected and isolated from outsiders by deserts and the Himalayan Mountains

  42. Differences Among Greek City-States The Greek city-state of Athens had a direct democracy, a government ruled by male citizens who vote on decisions

  43. Alexander the Great’s legacy was not his empire-building; the most significant effect of his conquests was spreading Greek innovations and Hellenistic culture throughout his empire

  44. THE PAX ROMANA After Rome’s trade and territory increased, Julius Caesar was assassinated by senators who feared his power; Julius’ death led to Augustus Caesar taking revenge, then becoming Rome’s first emperor Augustus’ 41 year reign marked the beginning of a 207-year era of peace, wealth, and expansion called the “PaxRomana” (“Roman Peace”) from 27 BCE to 180 CE Pax Romana

  45. University in Timbuktu Determined to spread Islam, Mansa Musa built numerous mosques and universities, making Timbuktu a major learning center Mali was always powerful because of its control of the gold-salt trade, but after King Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca, things changed

  46. FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM: SALAT • The Second Pillar of Islam is Salat, which means “daily ritual prayer”; prayer must be done five times per day (dawn, noon, midday, sunset, and at night)

  47. The Eastern Roman Empire later became known as the BYZANTINE EMPIRE While the Western Roman Empire collapsed and was taken over… …the Eastern side of the Roman Empire remained strong and intact

  48. How did physical geography impact the Byzantine capital of Constantinople? • Text • Constantinople was a crossroads for trade and business between Europe, Asia, and Africa because of its location; this trade made the Byzantine Empire very wealthy

  49. The way that people got protection from outside invaders was by turning to local lords and noblemen instead of the nation’s king This began a new political and social system called feudalism Feudalism is a system in which land is exchanged for military service and loyalty