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Educating EACH Child: Strategies that Work!. Prepared for the Grade 4 through Grade 6 PLC of Constitution Elementary and Sunrise Elementary by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D. January 2010. Sustaining Growth in Student Achievement.

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educating each child strategies that work

Educating EACH Child: Strategies that Work!

Prepared for the

Grade 4 through Grade 6 PLC of

Constitution Elementary and Sunrise Elementary

by Dan Mulligan, Ed. D.

January 2010

sustaining growth in student achievement
SustainingGrowth in Student Achievement
  • According to research conducted by NWREL (Northwest Regional Education Laboratory), sustaining growth in student achievement is contingent on one key factor:
    • The professional staff responsible for learning identifies the strategies (actions) that contributed to the gains in student achievement.
    • The staff then refines the implementation of these factors by meeting periodically throughout the year to evaluate the success of the strategies.
problem solving process
Problem Solving Process

Define the Problem

Defining Problem/Directly Measuring Behavior

Problem Analysis

Validating Problem

Identify Variables that Contribute to Problem

Develop Plan

Evaluate

Response to Intervention (RtI)

Implement Plan

Implement As Intended

Progress Monitor

Modify as Necessary

slide4

There are three parts to any research-based lesson:

  • Beginning– ‘check for’ and ‘build’ background knowledge of each student;
  • During– teach and actively engage each student in new content – making connections to prior knowledge;
  • End– check for understanding - provide each student with an opportunity to summarize (in their own way) and practice the essential knowledge and skills conveyed in the lesson
give one get one
GiveOne…GetOne…
  • On your handout, write one strategy or practice that you have implemented since the December session. Think and be creative.
  • When signaled, circulate the room to meet a colleague. Give him/her your answer and get their answer.
  • You need a total of 2 answers. You may not get more than one idea from an individual. When you have completed your task, return to your seat.
  • Enjoy!
opportunity to learn
Opportunity to Learn

Has the strongest relationship with student achievement of all school-level factors.

  • Three types of math curricula were identified by SIMS:
      • The Intended Curriculum: content/skill specified by the state, division, or school at a particular grade level.
      • The Implemented Curriculum: content/skill actually delivered by the teacher.
      • The Attained Curriculum: content/skill actually learned by the students.

Implemented Curriculum

Attained Curriculum

Intended Curriculum

content related evidence of validity intended curriculum
Content-Related Evidence of Validity(Intended Curriculum)

Essential

Skills

Essential

Knowledge

ASSESSMENT

TARGET

(content validity)

Essential

Vocabulary

generating and testing hypotheses problem solving
Generating and Testing HypothesesProblem Solving
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Giving students a model for the process,
    • Using familiar content to teach students the steps for problem solving
  • What does it look like? Steps for problem solving:
    • What am I trying to do?
    • What things are in my way?
    • What are some of the things I can do to get around these things?
    • Which solution seems to be the best?
    • Did this solution work? Should I try another solution?
slide13

Collecting

QUALITATIVE

Data

slide14

Checking for background knowledge:

What is a hieroglyphic?

  • American Heritage Dictionary - hi·er·o·glyph·ic, adj.  
    • Of, relating to, or being a system of writing, such as that of ancient Egypt, in which pictorial symbols are used to represent meaning or sounds or a combination of meaning and sound.
    • Written with such symbols.
slide15

FOUR-SECOND

PARTNER

Steps:

Find a person currently not seated next to you. Make friends 

This person is now your FOUR-SECOND PARTNER!

slide17

Momentous Discovery

When teachers regularly and collaboratively review assessment data for the purpose of improving practice to reach measurable achievement goals, something magical happens.

Michael Fullan

slide18

“If you don’t know where you are and you don’t know where you are going, anything you do will get you there”

slide20

In Deer Valley Unified Schools:

1. The percent of ALL students graduating on-time in the Class of ‘07.

2. The percent of HISPANIC students graduating on-time in the Class of ‘07.

3. According to the Silent Epidemic, the percent of U.S. dropouts who felt they were ‘too far behind’ by the end of elementary school.

4. The percent of WHITE students graduating on-time in the Class of ‘07.

5. The percent of ELL students graduating on-time in the Class of ‘07.

6. The percent of POVERTY students graduating on-time in the Class of ‘07.

7. The percent of ALL students PASSING the GRADE 4 SCIENCE AIMS test in ’09.

The percent of ALL students PASSING the GRADE 5 MATH AIMS test in ‘09.

86

73

51

90

49

74

C31 S55

C56 S70

SOLUTIONS (C): 31, 49, 51, 56, 73, 74, 86, 90

SOLUTIONS (S): 49, 51, 55, 70, 73, 74, 86, 90

thinking goes to school hunt for solutions
Thinking Goes to SchoolHunt for Solutions
  • Designed to check for background knowledge and already acquired knowledge (differentiation tool).
  • Fosters team-talk at higher levels of thinking (by providing solutions before questions).
  • Provides ENGAGEMENT (MIND before Movement).
  • Becomes a formative assessment if after the teaching/learning, students can evaluate and adjust - as needed – answers.
  • Primary Goal: Students (including at-risk) experience success (Yes…they can!!!)

Task: Create a ‘Hunt for Solutions’ that can be used tomorrow. Work with 1 team member to (1) select a content area, (create 2 or 3 questions to check for background knowledge and 3 or 4 questions that check for already acquired knowledge.

slide23
Data provide the power to … make good decisions, work intelligently, work effectively and efficiently, change things in better ways, know the impact of our hard work, help us prepare for the future, and know how to make our work benefit all children.

Victoria Bernhardt

slide25

The average student talks 35 seconds a day.

The student who is talking is growing dendrites.

g o o d i n s t r u c t i o n keep it simple keep it real
GoodInstruction(Keep it Simple…Keep it Real)

“Good instruction is good instruction, regardless of students’ racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic backgrounds. To a large extent, good teaching – teaching that is engaging, relevant, multicultural, and that appeals to a variety of modalities and learning styles – works well with ALL children.”

Educating Everybody’s Children, ASCD, 1995.

summarizing and note taking
Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Teaching students the rule-based summarizing strategies,
    • Using summary frames, and
    • Teaching students reciprocal teaching and group-enhanced summary.
  • What doe it look like?
    • Take out material that is NOT important for understanding,
    • Take out words that repeat information,
    • Replace a list of things with a word that describes the things in the list (e.g., use trees for elm, oak, and maple).
    • Find a topic sentence. If you cannot find a topic sentence, make one up.
summarizing and note taking1
Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Generalizations form the research:
    • Verbatim note-taking is, perhaps, the least effective technique.
    • Notes should be considered a work in progress.
    • Notes should be used as a study guide for tests.
    • The more notes that are taken, the better.
slide34

Vision

Skills

Incentives

Resources

Action Plan

Assessment

Meaningful

Change

Managing Complex Change

Skills

Incentives

Resources

Action Plan

Assessment

Confusion

Vision

Incentives

Resources

Action Plan

Assessment

Anxiety

Vision

Skills

Resources

Action Plan

Assessment

Gradual

Change

Vision

Skills

Incentives

Action Plan

Assessment

Frustration

Vision

Skills

Incentives

Resources

Assessment

False

Starts

Vision

Skills

Incentives

Resources

Action Plan

Unknown

Results

Adapted from Delores Ambrose, 1987

slide35

C O V E R

Allow students to

personalize their notebook

with a cover collage.

Preserve with packing tape.

what is a mind notebook
What is a MIND Notebook?
  • A personalized, clear textbook
  • A working portfolio -- all of your notes, classwork, etc. -- in one convenient spot

NOTE: a MIND notebook does not take the place of an engaging lesson. It is a powerful summarizing activity.

left side right side orientation
Left Side – Right Side Orientation

Right SIDE

Left SIDE

Left side items are what the student has . . .

LEARNED

Right side items are items from the teacher and text to be . . .

REMEMBERED

right side
Right Side
  • Right is for content that is to be remembered!
  • The right side “belongs” to the teacher and the text.
  • The right side has “testable” information.
rule of 9
Rule of 9

For mastery a student needs nine times to practice.

3 – teacher models

3 – students work in collaboration

3 – students work on his/her own, two of these in a timed situation, since pacing is critical

Silver, H. and Strong, R.

slide50

START: 1. What is the Question?

4. Who will add to the answer?

Turn 4 Thought

Turn 4 Thought

2. Who will Answer?

3. Who will Paraphrase and Praise?

slide52

“Insanity: the belief that one can get different results by doing the same thing.”

-Albert Einstein

slide53

CREATE

CONNECT

RELATE

RECALL

Levels of Thinking

slide54

Arizona Standards Verbs

  • PROBLEM SOLVING

Analyze Derive Discover Evaluate Explore

Predict Solve Survey Verify Investigate

  • REASONING

Categorize Classify Compare Contrast Differentiate

Describe Estimate Explain Generalize Interpret

Justify Order Hypothesize Predict Infer

Prioritize Rank Validate Summarize

  • COMMUNICATION

Clarify Correspond Describe Discuss Demonstrate

Exhibit Explain Express Persuade Portray

Restate Show Speak State Write

why use them
Why use them?
  • Higher-level thinking
    • Expand student thinking skills
      • Analyzing
      • Synthesizing
      • Evaluating
      • Relating and developing concepts
      • Categorizing
      • Sequencing
      • Comparing and contrasting
    • Get to higher levels of Bloom’s
questioning strategies
Questioning Strategies
  • Think Time
  • Question Exchange
  • Journaling
  • Numbered Heads
  • Jigsaw
  • Learning Centers
  • Timed Pair Share
  • Writing and Discussing
beating the odds
Beating the Odds
  • 366 high-poverty schools in 21 states beat the odds and reached exceptional levels of achievement by using “monitoring systems … for providing ongoing analysis of student achievement data”
  • Equally important, teachers at these schools met regularly – monthly or more often – to discuss student performance against state standards in order to reach measurable goals.

~ EdTrust study, 1999

common characteristics of high achieving schools 90 90 90
Common Characteristics of High Achieving Schools (90/90/90)
  • Focus on academic achievement
  • Clear curriculum choices
  • Frequent assessment of student progress and multiple opportunities for improvement
  • An emphasis on writing
  • External scoring
words heard in an hour
Words Heard in an Hour
  • Poverty: 615 words
  • Middle class: 1251 words
  • Professional: 2,153 words

Hart and Risley, 1995

types of assessment items and formats related to different aspects of learning
Types of Assessment Items and Formats Related to Different Aspects of Learning

Assessments

Transforming Classroom Grading, ASCD, 2002

Note: L – Low, M – Medium, H - High

a balanced assessment program
A Balanced Assessment Program
  • Assessment
  • “OF”
  • Summative
  • Norm Referenced / Standardized
  • A snapshot in time
  • Essential Question:
  • What have students already learned?
  • Assessment
  • “FOR”
  • Formative
  • Often teacher-made
  • A moving picture
  • Essential Question:
  • How can we help students learn more?
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Using elements of cooperative learning,
    • Varying grouping criteria,
    • Managing group size, and
    • Applying consistently and systematically, but without overusing.
  • What does it look like?
    • Positive interdependence (feeling of succeed together)
    • Face-to-face promotive interaction (helping each other learn, applauding success and efforts)
    • Individual and group accountability (each of us has to contribute to the group achieving its goals)
    • Interpersonal and small group skills ( communication, trust, leadership, decision making, and conflict resolution)
slide70

She is believed to have sewn the first flags for our country

Pocahontas

She was an Indian girl who was a friend and helper to the Jamestown settlers

Betsy Ross

He was the first African American who studied science and plants

He became a teacher

He developed hundreds of uses for peanuts, sweet potatoes and soybeans

Benjamin Franklin

slide71

START: 1. What is the Question?

4. Who will add to the answer?

Turn 4 Thought

Turn 4 Thought

2. Who will Answer?

3. Who will Paraphrase and Praise?

slide74

Wake up everybody no more sleeping in bed

No more backward thinking, time for thinking ahead

The world has changed so very much from what it used to be

There’s so much hatred, war and poverty.

Wake up all the teachers time to teach a new way

Maybe then they’ll listen to what you have to say.

They're the ones who are coming up and the world is in their hands.

When you teach the children, teach them the very best you can.

The world won’t get no better, if we just let it be.

The world won’t get no better, we got to change it … ya…just YOU and ME.

slide75

Spotlight Moment

As a team of professional educators:

Discuss with your peers:

What strategies shared during this session can you add to your toolkit?

Why are these strategies important?

choice board or tic tac toe
Choice Board or Tic-Tac-Toe

This assessment strategy allows students to select their own preferences but still achieve the targeted essential knowledge and skills.

After Reading Choice Board

information storage
Information Storage
  • Brain research has identified the “dual-coding’ theory of information storage. Knowledge is stored in two forms:
    • Linguistic – statements to be learned
    • Imagery – mental pictures or sensations (nonlinguistic)
  • Using both linguistic and nonlinguistic representations better enables students to think about and recall information.
  • Too often students are left on their own to create images.
    • If the teacher assists the student in creating images, there is a greater impact on learning.
generating and testing hypotheses problem solving1
Generating and Testing HypothesesProblem Solving
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Giving students a model for the process,
    • Using familiar content to teach students the steps for problem solving
  • What does it look like? Steps for problem solving:
    • What am I trying to do?
    • What things are in my way?
    • What are some of the things I can do to get around these things?
    • Which solution seems to be the best?
    • Did this solution work? Should I try another solution?
question from the snapshot survey for this factor

Question from the Snapshot Survey for this Factor

TEACHER

To what extent do we engage in these behaviors or address these issues?

1. Instructional Strategies

2. Classroom Management

3. Classroom Curriculum Design

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

slide81

Keeping Track of My LearningName: Stu Dent Learning Goal: Understand and use decimals, percents, and fractionsMy score at the beginning 1.4 My goal is to be at _3__ by Nov. 30Specific things I am going to do to improve: Work 15 minutes three times a week.________________________Learning Goal: Comparing decimals, percents, and fractions.

Quiz 1: Oct. 5; Quiz 2: Oct. 12; Quiz 3: Oct. 20; Quiz 4: Oct. 30 Quiz 5: Nov. 26

direct teaching words
Direct Teaching Words
  • Contextualize the word within the story.
    • "In the story, Lisa was reluctant to leave ...."
  • Have the children say the word.
    • " Say the word - reluctant"
  • Provide (teacher or student) a student-friendly explanation or description of the word.
    • "Reluctant means you are not sure you want to do something."
    • Versus a definition.
      • Reluctant - 1. Striving against; opposed in desire; unwilling disinclined; loth.

Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913)

teaching new words
Teaching New Words
  • Present examples of the word used in contexts different from the story context
    • Someone might be reluctant to eat a food that he or she never had before.
    • Students provide an example.
  • Give a non-linguistic representation of the words
    • Students generate one.

Marzano, Pickering and Pollock, 2001

engaging students
Engaging Students
  • Generate Examples
    • Tell about something you would be reluctant to do. Try to use reluctant when you tell about it.
    • You could start by saying something like. “I would be reluctant to ___”
  • Answering Questions/Giving Reasons
    • Why might a person be reluctant to eat a new food?
    • Why might a child be reluctant to come here?
    • Show me how a reluctant broccoli eater would look?
  • Put the new words in a Vocabulary Log
slide85

Types of pictures:

  • Use a symbol.
providing recognition
Providing Recognition
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Establishing a rationale for recognition;
    • Following guidelines for effective and ineffective praise;
    • Using recognition tokens; and,
    • Using pause, prompt, and praise techniques.
nonlinguistic representations
Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Graphic organizers,
    • Pictographic representations,
    • Mental images,
    • Physical models, and
    • Kinesthetic representations.
setting objectives
Setting Objectives
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Setting objectives that are not too specific,
    • Personalizing objectives,
    • Communicating objectives, and
    • Negotiating contracts.
  • Generalizations from Research:
    • Instructional goals narrow students’ focus.
    • Instructional goals should not be too specific.
    • Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals.
providing feedback
Providing Feedback
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Using criterion-referenced feedback and explanations,
    • Using feedback from assessments,
    • Engaging students in peer feedback, and
    • Asking students to self-assess
  • What does it look like?
    • Give timely feedback,
    • Explain what was correct and what was incorrect,
    • Avoid student grading of another’s work. Rather, encourage students assisting each other to improve, and
    • Provide students with opportunities to self-assess.
questions cues and advance organizers
Questions, Cues, and Advance Organizers
  • Approaches to this strategy in the classroom:
    • Cues and questions, and advance organizers are techniques that call on students’ prior knowledge.
    • Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
    • “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students has the effect of increasing the depth of students’ answers.
    • Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.
  • Generalizations from Research:
    • Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is unusual.
    • “Higher level” advance organizers produce deeper learning than “lower level” advance organizers.
classroom management
Classroom Management

Classroom management is defined as teachers’ actions related to:

  • Establishing and enforcing rules and procedures.
  • Carrying out disciplinary actions.*
  • Maintaining effective teacher-student relationships*, and
  • Maintaining an appropriate mental set.
classroom management1
Classroom Management

ii. Carrying out disciplinary actions.

Effect Sizes for Disciplinary Interventions

Reinforcement .86

Punishment .78

No immediate consequences .64

Punishment and reinforcement .97

classroom management2
Classroom Management

ii.Maintaining effective teacher-student relationships.

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

High DominanceHigh Submission

Clarity of Purpose, Lack of clarity, strong guidance purpose, or direction

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

High Cooperation High Opposition

Concern for needs Active antagonism, of others, team member thwart others’ goals

classroom management3

Classroom Management

Teachers in my school,

1. Have comprehensive and well articulated rules and procedures for: general classroom behavior, beginning and ending the period or day, transitions and interruptions, use of materials and equipment, group work, and seat work.

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

classroom management4

Classroom Management

Teachers in my school,

2. Utilize specific disciplinary strategies that reinforced appropriate behavior and provide consequences for inappropriate behavior.

3. Utilize specific strategies that instill a sense of confidence in students that they are receiving proper guidance and direction.

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

classroom management5

Classroom Management

Teachers in my school,

4. Utilize specific strategies that instill a sense of confidence in students that their concerns and wishes are being considered.

5. Use different strategies with different types of students to provide them with a sense of acceptance by the teacher.

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

classroom management6

Classroom Management

Teachers in my school,

6. Use specific techniques to keep aware of problems or potential problems in their schools.

7. Respond to in appropriate behaviors quickly and assertively.

8. Use specific techniques to maintain a healthy emotional objectivity when dealing with student behavior.

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

8 classroom curriculum design

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

Teachers in my school, when planning units of instruction …

…identify specific types of knowledge that are important for students to learn (e.g., important categories of knowledge, examples, sequences, comparisons, cause/effect relationships, facts, incidents, episodes, terms, skills, processes.)

8 classroom curriculum design1

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

Teachers in my school, when planning units of instruction …

2. …ensure that students will have multiple exposures to new content presented in a variety of forms (e.g., stories, descriptions) using a variety of media (e.g., read about the content, watch a demonstration, listen to a presentation.)

8 classroom curriculum design2

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

Teachers in my school, when planning units of instruction …

3. …make a clear distinction between skills and processes that are to be mastered versus skills and processes that are to be experienced but not mastered.

8 classroom curriculum design3

8. Classroom Curriculum Design

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

Teachers in my school, when planning units of instruction …

…organize examples into categories or groups that demonstrate the essential features of the content.

…ensure that students will be involved in complex projects that require them to address content in unique ways.

question from the snapshot survey for this factor1

Question from the Snapshot Survey for this Factor

STUDENT

To what extent do we engage in these behaviors or address these issues?

Home Environment

Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

Motivation

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

9 home environment1

9. Home Environment

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

Training and support is provided to parents to enhance

Their communication with their children,

Their supervision of their children, and

Their parenting roles.

10 learned intelligence background knowledge

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

Students are involved in a school-wide program of wide reading that emphasizes vocabulary development.

Students are involved in school-wide programs that directly increase the number and quality of life experiences that have.

10 learned intelligence background knowledge1

10. Learned Intelligence/ Background Knowledge

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

3. Students are involved in a school-wide program of direct instruction in vocabulary terms and phrases that are important to specific subject matter content.

11 motivation

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

11. Motivation

Students are provided with feedback on their knowledge gain.

Students are involved in simulation games and activities that are inherently engaging.

Students are provided with opportunities to construct and work on long-term projects of their own design.

Students are provided with training regarding the dynamics of motivation and how those dynamics affect them.

learning in not a mystery
Learning in NOT a Mystery
  • Visuals
  • Ownership of learning
  • Questioning
  • Note-taking

Not New Concepts

suggested use of instructional strategies
Beginning

Set Objectives

Provide feedback

Questions, cues, advanced organizers

Cooperative Learning

Identifying similarities and differences

Suggested Use of Instructional Strategies
  • During
  • Nonlinguistic representation
  • Notetaking and summarizing
  • Questions, cues, advanced organizers
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Identifying similarities and differences
  • End
  • Reinforce effort
  • Provide recognition
  • Evaluate
  • Self-Assessment
slide110

CHANGE

“The future is not a result of choices among alternative paths offered by the present, but a place that is created--created first in the mind and will, created next in activity. The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating. The paths are not to be found, but made, and the activity of making them, changes both the maker and the destination.”~ John Schaar

thank you for your commitment to children
Thank you for your commitment to children!

"It's your attitude, not just your aptitude that determines your ultimate altitude." --Zig Ziglar

Dan

personal learning goals
Personal Learning Goals
  • I will recognize strategies that have improved achievement for our students.
  • I will use data to focus additional improvement efforts to reach more students.
  • I will support my peers by offering constructive feedback to improve their efforts.
  • I will acquire a sense of urgency that this is OUR YEAR; and
  • I will enjoy working with my colleagues!

Preserve and Enhance

slide113

There are three parts to any research-based lesson:

  • Beginning– ‘check for’ and ‘build’ background knowledge of each student;
  • During– teach and actively engage each student in new content – making connections to prior knowledge;
  • End– check for understanding - provide each student with an opportunity to summarize (in their own way) and practice the essential knowledge and skills conveyed in the lesson
assessment informing instruction
Assessment Informing Instruction

People without information cannot act. People with information cannot help but act.

Ken Blanchard

question from the snapshot survey for this factor2

Question from the Snapshot Survey for this Factor

TEACHER

To what extent do we engage in these behaviors or address these issues?

1. Instructional Strategies

2. Classroom Management

3. Classroom Curriculum Design

1 >>>>>>>>2>>>>>>>>3>>>>>>>>4

Not at all To a great extent

slide116

What is the: essential knowledge, essential vocabulary, & essential skills of this kindergarten standard?

slide118

First-grade children from higher SES groups know about twice as many words as lower SES children

High school seniors near the top of their class knew about four times as many words as their lower performing classmates

High-knowledge third graders have vocabularies about equal to lowest-performing 12th graders

Individual differences in vocabulary have a powerful impact on reading comprehension beginning about third grade

Vocabulary

slide119

Research on Imagery as Elaboration

Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed

# of studies

slide122

Types of pictures:

  • Draw the actual thing.

Marine biologist

slide123

Types of pictures:

  • Draw the actual thing.

Abraham Lincoln

slide124

Types of pictures:

  • Draw the concept.

Mutualism

When one thing helps another.

slide125

Types of pictures:

  • Draw the concept.

Change

slide126

Types of pictures:

  • Draw an example.

Explorer

slide127

Types of pictures:

  • Draw the concept.

revolve

slide128

Types of pictures:

  • Draw an example.

food chain

slide129

Types of pictures:

  • Use a symbol.
name that category
Name That Category
  • Partner A faces the board
  • Partner B faces away from the board
  • Clue giver lists terms that pertain to a category
slide131

Research on Imagery as Elaboration

Students who used imagery to learn vocabulary, on average, performed

# of studies

slide132

When I dieI hope it occurs during a lecturebecause the transition from life to death will be so slight that I will hardly notice it.

slide133

Grade 2 math

Ruler

200 POINTS

Line of Symmetry

Pattern

100 POINTS 100 POINTS

Solid Shapes

Third from Right

Rotation

50 POINTS 50 POINTS 50 POINTS

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Parts of a book

Words that start with Tt

Words that start with Mm

Words with the long i vowel sound

Words with the long a vowel sound

Words with the long e vowel sound

Grade 1:

English

200 POINTS

100 POINTS 100 POINTS

50 POINTS 50 POINTS 50 POINTS

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There are three parts to any research-based lesson:

  • Beginning– ‘check for’ and ‘build’ background knowledge of each student;
  • During– teach and actively engage each student in new content – making connections to prior knowledge;
  • End– check for understanding - provide each student with an opportunity to summarize (in their own way) and practice the essential knowledge and skills conveyed in the lesson
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Beginning of Lesson

  • Key questions:
  • What is the background vocabulary that must be understood by each student?
  • What is the prior knowledge necessary to be ready for the lesson?
  • How will students’ demonstrate readiness?
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The Las Vegas Principle:

“What is said in this room … stays in this room!”

Spotlight Moment

Providing opportunities for teachers:

Checking for and building background knowledge

Discuss with your peers the current status of your school/grade-level in implementing this strategy to improve the achievement of EACH student.

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“Involvement of all stakeholders (students, parents, teachers and administrators) is essential in improvement efforts. The process of sustaining student achievement is to know what students must be able to do, where you (they) are, determine where you want them to be, then figure out what actions will get you (them) there and who is going to do this. Regular monitoring of progress and resulting course corrections completes theprocess.

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Required pass rates foreach subgroup:

2005 tests – reading (65%)math (63%)

2006 tests – reading (69%)

math (67%)

2007 tests – reading (73%)

math (71%)

2008 tests – reading (77%)

math (75%)

the major dimensions of reading
The Major Dimensions of Reading
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension
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Virginia SOL Reading Test Blueprint Summary Table

Grade 3 through Grade 11

*Additionally, the Spring 2006 Reading SOL tests will emphasize nonfiction.

knowing the learner
Knowing the Learner

Directions: Rank the symbols (1-4) in order from most (1) like you as a learner to least (4) like you as a learner.

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“If an educator keeps using the same strategies over and over and the student keeps failing,

who really is the slow learner?”

multiple intelligences howard gardner s theory
Multiple Intelligences (Howard Gardner’s theory)
  • It is essential to collect qualitative data on the variety of human intelligences in our classroom.
  • This qualitative data must be a factor in lesson planning.
  • This qualitative data must be shared with all students. This helps students recognize that together they have 3 or 4 areas of strength and therefore more tools for creativity and problem solving.

Lesson Learned: Diversity in our class is our strength!

Activity: Establish and share the Multiple Intelligences of the staff at our school.

choice board or tic tac toe1
Choice Board or Tic-Tac-Toe

This assessment strategy allows students to select their own preferences but still achieve the targeted essential knowledge and skills.

After Reading Choice Board

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Use Word Analysis Strategies

Identify words that have the same vowel sound. 61

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START: 1. What is the Question?

4. Who will add to the answer?

Turn 4 Thought

Turn 4 Thought

2. Who will Answer?

3. Who will Paraphrase and Praise?

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Kindergarten

2006 – 2007

Virginia Standards of Learning, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and Research-Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

Dan Mulligan, 2006

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Grade 1

2006 – 2007

Virginia Standards of Learning, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and Research-Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

Dan Mulligan, 2006

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Grade 2

2006 – 2007

Virginia Standards of Learning, Bloom’s Taxonomy, and Research-Based Strategies For Increasing Student Achievement

Dan Mulligan, 2006

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Teachers should use feedback to support the learning of essential knowledge and essential skills and furnish useful information to both the teacher, parent and the student. Assembling evidence from a variety of sources is more likely to yield an accurate picture.

Classroom

Performance

Assessments

sample checkpoint test for sol k 43
Sample Checkpoint Test for SOL K.4

“The math program in pre-kindergarten through Grade 2 should take advantage of technology. Guided work with calculators can enable students to explore number and pattern, focus on problem-solving processes, and investigate realistic applications.”

~Principles and Standards 2000

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Suggested Resources

www.authorama.comhttp://www.highlights.com/http://rubistar.4teachers.org/index.phphttp://www.rockingham.k12.va.us/mves/mves.htmlhttp://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.htmlwww.augusta.k12.va.uswww.ttaconline.org