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The City of Los Angeles …. Second Largest City in the USA 470 Square Miles Third Busiest Port Fifth Busiest International Airport 4 Million People 40,000 City Employees LAPD – 9,500 Employees LAFD – 3,500 Employees – 106 Fire Stations. The Fire Service – 2013 and beyond.

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the city of los angeles
The City of Los Angeles …
  • Second Largest City in the USA
  • 470 Square Miles
  • Third Busiest Port
  • Fifth Busiest International Airport
  • 4 Million People
  • 40,000 City Employees
  • LAPD – 9,500 Employees
  • LAFD – 3,500 Employees – 106 Fire Stations
the times they are a changin
“The times they are ‘a changin’ ”
  • Organized over a century ago to guard against property loss
the 1970 s
The 1970’s
  • Baby Boomer Generation
  • Structure Fires dwindle dramatically
  • National economy improves
  • The beginning of EMS
70 s 80 s 90 s
70’s-80’s-90’s
  • Sprinklers
  • Stringent building codes
  • Fire prevention
  • Fire retardant materials
  • Smoke Detectors

Fires continued to decrease

70 s 80 s 90 s1
70’s-80’s-90’s
  • Lightweight construction
  • Faster fuel loads
  • Less fire-ground experience
cultural shift
Cultural Shift

Generation X-Y

Less willing to sacrifice family and personal interests

Very educated

  • Baby Boomer
  • Military – Construction
  • Unquestioning
  • Dedicated-Loyal
  • Little formal education
the economy1
The Economy
  • Public Safety=50%-70% of city budgets
  • Fire Departments = 20% of city budgets
  • 94% are salaries (LAFD)
  • 96% work in “the field”

Most cities Crime is up

Fires are down

what drives change
What drives Change?
  • Demands by customers
  • Competition/Privatization
  • Economy
  • Political will
  • Social issues
change is the fire service
Change is the Fire Service

“There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things” Machiavelli, 1537

the call for change
The call for change
  • ADA- age discrimination
  • New Haz Mat
  • Environmental
  • ICS
  • SCBA
  • Technology
  • Risk Management
  • Alternative Fuel vehicles
  • GEO positioning
  • Managed Health care
the call for change1
The call for change
  • Reduced funding
  • Change in response matrix (70% EMS)
  • Public expectation
  • Maintain service
  • Less personnel
  • Keep response times
  • Consolidation
  • “Right size”

Maintain standards

change is the fire service so what s the problem
Change is the Fire ServiceSo what’s the problem?
  • We take great pride in our past and we have entitlement.
  • Most of us have no “say” in the change.
  • We’re rarely told the Who, What, How and Why.
  • We have to implement the change.
why do people resist change
WHY do people resist change?
  • They are stubborn and ignorant?
  • They have legitimate concerns the leader may not have considered?
resistance to change
Resistance to Change

Think of any significant changes that have been made since you’ve been a member of the Fire Department

  • What was your first reaction?
  • What is your feeling now, years later?
individual sources of resistance
INDIVIDUAL Sources of Resistance
  • See no need to change
  • Fear losing something of value
  • Taken out of their comfort zone
  • Fear they lack skills
  • Negative past experience
leader strategies to overcome resistance
Leader Strategies to Overcome Resistance
  • Demonstrate the Need for the Change
  • It must be tied to the mission, somehow.
  • It it’s budget driven, that must be acknowledged honestly.
  • It should, in most cases, undergo an extensive review after implemented
leader strategies to overcome resistance1
Leader Strategies to Overcome Resistance
  • Demonstrate the Need for the Change
  • Allow people to participate
  • There should never be “operational” changes that are a surprise to the field
leader strategies to overcome resistance2
Leader Strategies to Overcome Resistance
  • Demonstrate the Need for the Change
  • Allow people to participate
  • Arrange additional training
leader strategies to overcome resistance3
Leader Strategies to Overcome Resistance
  • Demonstrate the Need for the Change
  • Allow people to participate
  • Arrange additional training
  • Actively Supportthe Change
leader strategies to overcome resistance4
Leader Strategies to Overcome Resistance
  • Demonstrate the Need for the Change
  • Allow people to participate
  • Arrange additional training
  • Actively Support the Change
  • Make Changes Incrementally
leader strategies to overcome resistance5
Leader Strategies to Overcome Resistance
  • Demonstrate the Need for the Change
  • Allow people to participate
  • Arrange additional training
  • Actively Support the Change
  • Make Changes Incrementally
  • Have to courage to re-adjust
so what do we do now
So, what do we do now?
  • Determine how best to “keep” what we hold true and dear
  • Politics are a dangerous but necessary game
professionalism
Professionalism
  • We are public servants
  • Appearance is who we are perceived as
  • Office
  • Vehicle
  • Uniform
  • Equipment
  • Credibility, Support, and reputation come with a sharp appearance and professional demeanor
commanding officers decision template
Commanding Officers Decision Template
  • The Needs of the public 1st
  • The Organization 2nd
  • The Individuals 3rd
does it make the commanding officer popular
Does it make the Commanding Officer popular?
  • Uniforms
  • Driving Regulations
  • Safety Equipment
  • Behavior/Jokes

There a LOT of rules, but have we really trained them on how to make the best decision? And do we always model the appropriate behavior?

behavioral risk management
Behavioral Risk Management

Making the right decision all of the time.

Where is your Loyalty?

behavioral risk management1
Behavioral Risk Management
  • Why do we still have issues?
  • Disobedience (serious to “trivial”)
  • Lack of understanding (Training)
  • Humor/Firefighter Culture
  • Inconsistent application
lack of understanding
Lack of Understanding
  • Have you truly been trained?
  • Black & White Issues
  • Grey areas?
behavior template are you going to do it or allow it
Behavior “Template”Are you going to do it, or allow it?
  • Is it specifically outlined in our policy?
  • Could it affect your ability to respond?
  • Could it have a negative affect on the work environment? (is it work related?)
  • If the public knew about this could it bring discredit?

Still unsure? Call your boss! Ask ‘em!

Is it Job-related, professionally based, mission consistent, and in the best interest of the public?

we have to compensate operationally
We have to compensate, operationally
  • Less personnel requires operational changes & innovative methods
  • We must continue to strive for effectiveness & safety
slide37
In April of 2004, fire service leaders from across the United States gathered in Tampa, Florida.

At this summit meeting these leaders began to design a new fire service culture.

This new culture is built on the

16 Firefighter Life Safety Initiatives

so that

Everyone Goes Home.

initiative 1
Initiative # 1
  • Define and advocate the need for a cultural change within the fire service relating to safety; incorporating leadership, management, supervision, accountability and personal responsibility.
what initiative 1 means
What Initiative #1 Means

Cultural change has to begin with informal leaders, managers, supervisors. From top to bottom: the culture of the fire service must change. You can change your behavior TODAY.

  • Be part of the “NEW” Fire Service Safety Culture
  • Examine your attitudes & behaviors regarding safety
  • Realize that change is not a threat to the organization
  • Embrace Health & Wellness programs & practice them
  • Lead by your own example & make the difference—be an agent of change
initiative 2
Initiative # 2

Enhance the personal and organizational accountability for health and safety throughout the fire service.

what initiative 2 means
What Initiative #2 Means

Each fire service organization must promote safe practices; each individual must have the tools to be safe and adhere to safe practices at ALL TIMES.

  • Follow SOPs at alltimes
  • Train / Learn / Teach everyday
  • Utilize the Incident Command System
  • Adhere to Vehicle Inspection Schedules
  • Schedule and stick to equipment checks
  • “Strap in and Stay In”
  • Don’t take the environment for granted
initiative 3
Initiative # 3

Focus greater attention on the integration of risk management with incident management at all levels, including strategic, tactical, and planning responsibilities.

what initiative 3 means
What Initiative #3 Means

Learn the concept of “Risk Management”; Ensure everyone understands the difference between an acceptable risk and an unacceptable risk.

Develop and implement a system to pre-identify unacceptable risks.

initiative 4
Initiative # 4

All firefighters must be empowered to stop unsafe practices.

what initiative 4 means
What Initiative #4 Means

Firefighters must be allowed to identify and report unsafe practices. They must be able to stop activities that present imminent harm to themselves or others, without fear of penalty or reprisal.

  • Be aware of safe practices and look for unsafe ones
  • Take the initiative to develop and implement procedures to enable and empower firefighters to stop unsafe conditions in training, on the fire ground and during routine operations
  • Never question the integrity of those who speak out for safe fire ground operations
initiative 5
Initiative # 5

Develop and implement national standards for training, qualifications,

and certification (including regular

re-certification) that are equally applicable to all firefighters based on the duties they are expected to perform.

what initiative 5 means
What Initiative #5 Means

Fire service departments are recognizing national certification standards as a way to measure the competency of their members. National standards encourage departments to operate at higher levels of effectiveness.

  • Seek state and national certifications at all levels of your fire department employment
  • Support efforts toward mandatory re-certification or refresher training; refreshing teaches new methods and improves skills which are used infrequently
initiative 6
Initiative # 6

Develop and implement national medical and physical fitness standards that are equally applicable to all firefighters, based on the duties they are expected to perform.

what initiative 6 means
What Initiative #6 Means

In this profession, health and wellness are non-negotiable. Departments should establish and enforce SOPs which support wellness. Individuals must embrace wellness as a strategy for successful fire service careers or seek employment elsewhere.

  • Adopt a heart-healthy lifestyle, including making healthful food choices and regular exercise
  • Don’t smoke / Don’t do drugs
  • Follow all health and wellness SOPs
  • Be a Good Example
  • Understand the impact your death would have on your family, co-workers and community
initiative 7
Initiative # 7

Create a national research agenda and data collection system that relates to the initiatives.

what initiative 7 means
What Initiative #7 Means

We won’t know if we are living the initiatives if we do not collect data. Data analysis is the key to making any course corrections regarding the Life Safety Initiatives. It will also provide important corollary data.

  • Encourage your department to participate in national data recovery systems such as NFIRS
  • Support data gathering at the local level
  • Be vocal with local politicians about where your tax money is spent—urge them to support our national agenda for firefighter safety
initiative 8
Initiative # 8

Utilize available technology wherever it can help produce higher levels of health and safety

what initiative 8 means
What Initiative #8 Means

It is irresponsible not to use technology when it can improve safety outcomes. Technological solutions should be a leverage and a tool for improving fire ground safety.

  • Attend conferences to keep abreast of new technologies and take this knowledge back to your department
  • Encourage your department to employ Command and Rescue vehicles on scene which are equipped with technological advance systems that can be integrated into the command system
  • Become the technology geek of your department
initiative 9
Initiative # 9

Thoroughly investigate all firefighter fatalities, injuries, and near misses.

what initiative 9 means
What Initiative #9 Means

Even if your organization is uncomfortable with sharing information about a fatality, injury, or near-miss incident, it is a moral obligation to do so. Knowing what happened can prevent it from happening again.

  • Implement investigations without delay—learning can begin immediately
  • Be familiar with NIOSH, FEMA, USFA, CDC, NFPA reports. They can be studied to increase safety
  • Encourage the collection of “near-miss” data. Near-miss incidents provide excellent learning / training tools
initiative 10
Initiative # 10

Grant programs should support the implementation of safe practices and / or mandate safe practices as an eligibility requirement.

what initiative 10 means
What Initiative #10 Means

There is grant money available for you to begin implementing the initiatives. Grants should however, be tied to increasing safety measures. No safe practices / no grant.

  • If you ask for a grant to improve health and wellness for example, recommendations should be made and implemented as a condition of future grants.
  • Take time to learn how to write grants professionally— beginning with the identification of granting sources.
initiative 11
Initiative # 11

National standards for emergency response policies and procedures should be developed and championed.

what initiative 11 means
What Initiative #11 Means

National Standards for emergency response policies and procedures should be developed. At the local level, departments may have to increase response times to “arrive alive.”

  • Help to adopt safe driving rules and enforce them.
  • Secure loose objects in cabs and on vehicles.
  • Respond to emergencies using emergency response SOPs; no red lights and sirens to routine calls.
  • Make sure all vehicles meet current safety standards.
  • MOST IMPORTANT: MANDATE SEAT BELT USE!
initiative 12
Initiative # 12

National protocols for response to violent incidents (including terrorism) should be developed and championed.

what initiative 12 means
What Initiative #12 Means

Fire and EMS workers deserve to have policies which will reduce their exposure to all threats of violence.

  • Promote policies to “stage” violent incident responses, removing the pressure to react immediately. SOPs should include “GO” and “No-GO” criteria.
  • Learn all you can about responding to terrorist incidents, regardless of your department’s size or proximity to predicted targets.
initiative 13
Initiative # 13

Firefighters and their families must have access to counseling and psychological support

what initiative 13 means
What Initiative #13 Means

Firefighting is a high-risk occupation which, from time to time, can put the employee and his or her family under extreme stress. They deserve access to mental health care.

  • If you are feeling stress (depression / anxiety or physical symptoms) seek help from physicians, EAP counselors, and religious or other sources.
  • Don’t “tough it out”; this could lead to bad results for you and your family.
  • Stress-awareness should be part of firefighter training at all levels.
  • Help a buddy you see struggling with stress-related problems.
initiative 14
Initiative # 14

Public education must receive more resources and be championed as a critical fire and life safety program

what initiative 14 means
What Initiative #14 Means

Public Education is a responsibility of all fire service personnel. It should not be reserved for one week in October. Increased civilian awareness will decrease firefighter risks.

  • Make communicating the fire prevention message to the community a priority.
  • Utilize USFA resources and materials—they are free and excellent.
  • Become an ambassador for community safety in your church, children's’ schools, volunteer groups, etc.
  • Become an advocate for code adoption & enforcement .
slide67

Initiative # 15

Advocacy must be strengthened for the enforcement of codes and the installation of home fire sprinklers

what initiative 15 means
What Initiative #15 Means

The widespread use of residential sprinklers will improve outcomes for civilians and decrease firefighter injuries and LODDs.

  • Ensure all firefighters understand how sprinkler systems operate and the value they bring to reducing Line of Duty Deaths.
  • Actively advocate for residential sprinkler laws and widespread adoption.
  • If you build a home, consider the installation of a sprinkler system—lead by example.
slide69

Initiative # 16

Safety must be a primary consideration in the design of apparatus and equipment.

what initiative 16 means
What Initiative #16 Means

Encourage your department to make “safety” the highest priority in equipment and apparatus purchases — as high as design and price.

  • Form an apparatus committee and help set your department’s policies on equipment and apparatus purchases.
  • Read professional journals and attend conferences where new innovations in apparatus and equipment are demonstrated.
  • Learn NFPA standard 1901 regarding apparatus safety standards.