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The Agricultural Industry of Argentina

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  1. The Agricultural Industry of Argentina Tom Loynachan January 28, 2009

  2. Outline • Location • Natural resources • Climate • Soils • Crops • Livestock • Summary

  3. Most of South America lies east of the USA. Buenos Aires 2 hours ahead of Washington, DC (Standard Time) Argentina ca. 3/10th size of US; size of US east of Mississippi River N-S length = 2,270 miles E-W wide = 890 miles

  4. Latitude Buenos Aires = 34.2 S Oklahoma City = 35.5 N Ames = 42.0 N Longitude Buenos Aires = 58.2 W Ames = 93.6 W Miami = 80.2 W

  5. Total Land Area • 274 million ha • 142 permanent pasture • 27 under arable crops • 1 permanent crops (such as critus) • 1.6 irrigated 2nd largest country in South America (after Brazil); 8th largest country in the world.

  6. Natural Resources of Argentina • Fertile plains of the Pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, petroleum, uranium.

  7. Three Large Regions • Humid: 68 million ha (25%) • Semi-arid: 48 million ha (15%), irrigation is often necessary • Arid: 170 million ha (60%), little agricultural activity

  8. Pampas • Grass-covered plains (Pampas comes from an Indian word for level plain) • Pampas includes the three most important provinces of the country, Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and Santa Fe. The annual rainfall varies from 800 mm in the west to 1000 mm in the east (Ames 815 mm).

  9. Iowa ave. rainfall 26-34

  10. Iowa annual mean temperature 46 N, 52 S Annual Mean Temp 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20

  11. Much of Argentina is remarkably flat, about 2/3th of the land mass is less than 500 m above sea level.

  12. Argentina Soils • Soil formation is influence by: • Parent material • Climate • Topography • Biological activity • Time

  13. 8 soil orders: Mollisols, Entisols, Aridisols, and Alfisols makes up 80% Mollisols = 871,569 km2: (31%)

  14. Agriculture in Argentina • Soybeans • Wheat • Corn • Sunflower • Oats • Cotton • Sorghum • Rye • Sugar cane • Grapes • Mate • Citrus (esp. lemons) • Tobacco • Peanuts • Rice • Livestock

  15. Overview • An estimated 27,200,000 hectares (67,200,000 acres) of arable and permanent cropland (#12 world-wide) (10% of country) (Iowa 14.6M ha) • Agriculture and animal husbandry have traditionally supplied the nation with 70–95% of its export earnings

  16. Agriculture in Argentina • Second largest world exporter of maize • Third largest world exporter of soybeans (have increased almost three-fold since 1990) • Third largest world exporter of beef • Fourth largest world exporter of wheat

  17. Land Area In (2004): • Soybean - #3 (14,000,000 ha) (35M acres) • Wheat - #10 (5,700,000 ha) • Corn - #10 (2,300,000 ha) • Sunflower - #4 (1,830,000 ha) • Cotton - #14 (250,000 ha) • Peanut - #16 (170,000 ha) 1 ha = 2.47 acres

  18. Yields (2004) • Corn 6.52 MT/ha (US 8.93)* • Cotton 449 kg/ha (US 818) • Peanut 2.51 MT/ha (US 3.54) • Soybean 2.36 MT/ha (US 2.28)* • Sunflower 1.77 MT/ha (US 1.36) • Wheat (2.46 MT/ha) (US 2.97) *1 MT/ha = 15.93 bu/ac corn = 14.87 bu/ac soybean

  19. Fruit Production • Apples • Oranges • Lemons and limes • Peaches and nectarines • Grapefruit • Bananas • Grapes (1999 = 4.5% of world’s total wine production)

  20. Pronounced ‘yerba mahtay’ Yerba Mate Native to subtropical South America including northern Argentina Steep dry leaves and stems in hot water Alkaloids similar to caffeine

  21. Yerba Mate Soda

  22. Approx. Livestock Numbers • Poultry 900,000,000 • Beef 50,800,000 • Dairy 13,000,000 • Sheep 12,500,000 • Swine 6,100,000 • Goats 4,200,000

  23. Cattle ranching has been a main economic base for the residents of the Pampas for over 200 years, the main cattle producing area. In 2005 Argentina was the third largest exporter of beef after Brazil and Australia. Traditionally raised on grass but going more to grainfed during last 2-3 months b/c of higher value of crops; 2008 (30%). British breeds Hereford and Angus common; some Charolais. Holstein are the common dairy animals.

  24. Asado is a technique for cooking cuts of meat, usually consisting of beef alongside various other meats, which are cooked on a grill or open fire.

  25. Cattle Production Province% of share Buenos Aires 37 Cordoba 15 Santa Fe 11 Corrientes 8 Entre Rios 7 La Pampa 6

  26. Exports from Argentina should be ca. 500,000 tons for 2009, the volume, however, will depend on government policy. A main market is frozen beef to the Russian Federation.

  27. Sheep Breeds Corriedale Merino Romney

  28. Summary • Huge diversity in Argentina but our visited location may seem somewhat similar to Iowa in landscape, soils, crops, livestock, and climate • Major exporter of soybeans, corn, beef, and wheat • Be sure to try the Asado

  29. Questions?