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Types of Societies. Chapter 4, Section 3. How are societies organized?. A group is a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who have some common identity . Societies are the largest examples of a group.

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types of societies

Types of Societies

Chapter 4, Section 3

how are societies organized
How are societies organized?
  • A group is a set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who have some common identity.
    • Societies are the largest examples of a group.
  • Societies are classified by subsistence strategies, or how a society uses technology to provide for the needs of its members.
    • Three main types: preindustrial, industrial, postindustrial.
preindustrial societies
Preindustrial Societies
  • Food production is the main economic activity.
  • Four subdivisions: hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural.
    • Divided on the basis of how they produce food and their level of technology.
preindustrial hunting and gathering
Preindustrial- Hunting and Gathering
  • Main form of food production= collection of wild plants and hunting of animals.
  • Characteristics:
    • Move around constantly in search of food;
    • No permanent villages;
    • Smaller size 60-100 people;
    • Equality;
    • Family is the main social unit.
preindustrial pastoral
Preindustrial- Pastoral
  • Main form of food production= domesticated herd animals.
  • Characteristics:
    • Move around to new pastures for animals;
    • Can support larger populations;
    • Food surpluses division of labor
      • Specialization of tasks by individuals
preindustrial horticultural
Preindustrial- Horticultural
  • Main form of food production= fruits and vegetables grown in a garden.
  • Characteristics:
    • Size of society depends on land available for farming;
    • Food surpluses division of labor;
    • Inequalities in wealth and power
preindustrial agricultural
Preindustrial- Agricultural
  • Main form of food production= domesticated animals used to plow fields to grow crops.
  • Characteristics:
    • Use of irrigation and terracing techniques;
    • Can support very large populations;
    • Development of cities and more-advanced technology.
industrial societies
Industrial societies
  • Emphasis shifts from food production to the production of manufactured goods.
    • Food production is carried out w/help of machines-- can produce faster.
  • Can yield greater population sizes.
  • Industrialization can lead to urbanization= concentration of population in cities.
  • Greater productivity, but less skill for workers.
  • Competition for social position.
postindustrial societies
Postindustrial societies
  • Economy is centered around the providing of information and services.
  • In the United States, roughly 73% of the pop’n is involved in these fields.
  • Characteristics:
    • Standard of living and quality of life improve;
    • Emphasis on science and education;
    • Social equality and democracy.
why is there a difference
Why is there a difference?
  • Emile Durkheim used the concepts of mechanical and organic solidarity to describe social relationships within a society.
  • Mechanical solidarity= people share values and perform same tasks; united.
  • Organic solidarity= impersonal social relationships; relationships based on need rather than value.