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Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease. Cardiovascular Disease. Includes heart attack, stroke Leading cause of death in the U.S. Annually, 500,000 people die of CHD in the U.S. (1 million including strokes and other CVD) Each year, 1.5 million Americans have a heart attack .

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cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Includes heart attack, stroke
  • Leading cause of death in the U.S.
  • Annually, 500,000 people die of CHD in the U.S. (1 million including strokes and other CVD)
  • Each year, 1.5 million Americans have a heart attack
cardiovascular disease4
Cardiovascular Disease
  • Symptoms take years to develop
  • Plaque build-up can begin in childhood
  • Myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
pathophysiology of atherosclerosis
Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis
  • Vessel lining is injured (often at branch points) →
  • Plaque is deposited to repair injured area →
  • Plaque thickens, incorporating cholesterol, protein, muscle cells, and calcium (rate depends partly on level of LDL-C in the blood) →
pathophysiology of atherosclerosis cont
Pathophysiology of Atherosclerosis (cont)
  • Arteries harden and narrow as plaque builds, making them less elastic →
  • Increasing pressure causes further damage →
  • A clot or spasm closes the opening, causing a heart attack
heart attack myocardial infarction8
Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction)
  • When blood supply to the heart is disrupted, the heart is damaged
  • May cause the heart to beat irregularly or stop altogether
  • 25% of people do not survive their first heart attack
symptoms of a heart attack
Symptoms of a Heart Attack
  • Intense, prolonged chest pain or pressure
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Nausea and vomiting (especially women)
  • Dizziness (especially women)
  • Weakness
  • Jaw, neck and shoulder pain (especially women)
  • Irregular heartbeat
factors that may bring on a heart attack in at risk persons
Factors that May Bring On a Heart Attack in At-Risk Persons
  • Dehydration
  • Emotional stress
  • Strenuous physical activity when not physically fit
  • Waking during the night or getting up in the morning
  • Eating a large, high-fat meal (increases risk of clotting)
symptoms of stroke brain attack
Symptoms of Stroke (Brain Attack)
  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes
  • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
  • Sudden severe headache
blood lipids lipoproteins
Blood Lipids (Lipoproteins)
  • Lipids (fat) cannot mix with water
  • Blood is high in water
  • Lipids cannot travel in blood without help
  • Lipoproteins are formed to carry lipids
lipoproteins combine
Lipoproteins combine
  • Lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol)
  • Protein
  • Phospholipids
low density lipoproteins ldl c
Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL-C)
  • Also called “bad cholesterol)
  • Contain relatively large amounts of fat, and less protein
  • Deposits cholesterol in arteries
  • Thus, ↑ LDL-C is associated with ↑ CVD risk
  • Serum LDL-C should be < 130 mg/dL
high density lipoproteins hdl
High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL)
  • Also called “good cholesterol”
  • Relatively high in protein, lower in lipid
  • Acts as scavenger, carrying cholesterol from arteries to liver
    • Liver packages as bile
    • Excretes
  • ↑ HDL-Cis associated with ↓ risk of CVD
  • Serum HDL-C should be >60 mg/dL (optimal) or at least >40 in men and 50 in women
triglycerides
Triglycerides
  • The most diet-responsive blood lipid
  • Should be ≤150 mg/dL in fasting state
triglycerides20
Triglycerides

Lower blood triglycerides by:

  • Not overeating
  • Limiting alcohol and simple sugars
  • Spreading meals throughout the day
  • Including fatty fish in the diet
  • Controlling diabetes if present
  • Performing regular physical activity
  • Not smoking
total cholesterol
Total Cholesterol
  • Includes HDL-C, LDL-C, and a fraction of the triglycerides
  • Total cholesterol should be ≤ 200 mg/dL
  • Total cholesterol does not tell whole story
evaluating blood lipids ldl
Evaluating Blood Lipids: LDL

Source: ATP-III Guidelines, NHLBI, accessed 2-2005

evaluating blood lipids total cholesterol
Evaluating Blood Lipids: Total Cholesterol

Source: ATP-III Guidelines, NHLBI, accessed 2-2005

evaluating blood lipids hdl
Evaluating Blood Lipids: HDL

Source: ATP-III Guidelines, NHLBI, accessed 2-2005

blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • Measured in mmHg
  • Systolic blood pressure: the pressure in the arterial blood vessels associated with the pumping of the heart
  • Diastolic blood pressure: the pressure in the arterial blood vessels when the heart is between beats
hypertension either
Hypertension: Either
  • Systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg
  • Diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg
risk factors other than ldl for cvd
Risk Factors (other than LDL) for CVD
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Hypertension (BP ≥140/90 mmHg or on anti-hypertensive tx
  • Low HDL-C* (<40 mg/dL)
  • Family history of premature CHD in first degree relative (in male <55 years, in female <65 years)
  • Age (men ≥45 years, women ≥55 years)

*HDL-C ≥ 60 mg/dL counts as a negative risk factor

Source: ATP-III Guidelines, NHLBI, accessed 2-2005

risk factors other than ldl for cvd29
Risk Factors (other than LDL) for CVD
  • Diabetes (considered equivalent to a history of CHD)
  • Obesity
  • Inactivity

Source: ATP-III Guidelines, NHLBI, accessed 2-2005

screening for cvd risk
Screening for CVD Risk
  • Everyone 20 and older should have his cholesterol measured at least every 5 years
  • Lipoprotein profile: includes TC, LDL-C HDL-C, and TG
  • At least should include TC and HDL-C
  • If TC> 200 mg/dL or HDL-C< 40 mg/dL, obtain full lipid profile

Source: National Cholesterol Education Program, National Institutes of Health, accessed 2-05

total cholesterol31
Total Cholesterol
  • John and Marty each have total cholesterol levels of 200 mg/dL.
  • Their health risk is different
total cholesterol is not enough
John’s Lipid Profile

TC: 200 mg/dL

LDL-C: 140 mg/dL

HDL-C: 30 mg/dL

TG: 150 mg/dL

Marty’s Lipid Profile

TC: 200 mg/dl

LDL-C: 95 mg/dL

HDL-C: 75 mg/dL

TG: 150 mg/dL

Total Cholesterol is Not Enough
what affects cholesterol levels
What Affects Cholesterol Levels?
  • Diet
  • Weight
  • Physical activity
  • Age and gender
  • Heredity

You control the first three!

lowering ldls
Lowering LDLs
  • See your doctor to assess for other conditions
  • Reduce dietary saturated fat, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol
  • Increase MUFA and PUFA
  • Increase dietary fiber (soluble)
lowering blood tg
Lowering Blood TG
  • Is the most diet-responsive blood lipid
  • Avoid overeating
  • Limit alcohol
  • Limit simple sugars
  • Small frequent meals
  • Include fish in the diet
raise the hdl
Raise the HDL
  • Physical activity
  • At least 45 min./day, 4 days a week
  • Avoid smoking
  • Eat regularly
  • Eat less total fat
  • Moderate intake of alcohol increases HDL
therapeutic lifestyle changes tlc
Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC)
  • TLC Diet
  • Physical activity (30 minutes on most, if not all, days)
  • Weight management: will help manage triglycerides, increase HDL,
diet strategies for reducing the risk
Diet Strategies for Reducing the Risk
  • Eat less saturated fat & trans fats
  • Replace with MUFA and essential fatty acids
  • Eat fish 2x a week
  • Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables
  • Eat more whole grains and less refined CHO
  • Eat at least 3 meals regularly
tlc diet
TLC Diet
  • Low in saturated fat (<7% of calories) and cholesterol (<200 mg/day)
  • Enough calories to maintain a desirable weight
  • High in soluble fiber
  • Plant stanols or sterols, if needed
other recommendations
Other Recommendations
  • Fat intake can be higher as long as saturated and trans fatty acid are minimal
  • Eat diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables
  • Cut down on red meats
  • Cut down on simple sugars and refined CHO
tlc healthy cooking
TLC: Healthy Cooking
  • Bake, steam, roast, broil, stew or boil instead of frying
  • Remove poultry skin before eating
  • Use a nonstick pan with cooking oil spray or small amount of liquid vegetable oil instead of lard, butter, shortening, other solid fats
  • Trim visible fat before you cook meats
  • Chill meat and poultry broth until fat becomes solid, remove
tlc healthy shopping
TLC: Healthy Shopping
  • Choose chicken breast or drumstick instead of wing and thigh
  • Select skim milk or 1 percent instead of 2 percent or whole milk
  • Buy lean cuts of meat such as round, sirloin, and loin
  • Buy more vegetables, fruits and grains
  • Read nutrition labels on food packages
tlc dining out
TLC: Dining Out
  • Choose restaurants that have lowfat options available
  • Ask that sauces, gravies, and salad dressings be served on the side
  • Control portions by asking for an appetizer serving or sharing with a friend
tlc dining out44
TLC: Dining Out
  • At fast food restaurants, go for salads, grilled (not fried or breaded) skinless chicken sandwiches, regular-sized hamburgers, or roast beef sandwiches
  • Avoid regular salad dressings and fatty sauces. Limit jumbo or deluxe burgers, sandwiches, french fries, and other foods.
other dietary interventions
Other Dietary Interventions
  • Cholestin (from Chinese red yeast) reduces cholesterol
  • Plant Stanols/Sterol Esters
    • Benecol and Take Control margarine
    • Cholesterol-lowering effects
    • Decrease absorption of cholesterol and lowers amount returning via enterohepatic circulation.
    • Liver takes up more cholesterol from the blood
omega 3 fatty acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
  • Reduces inflammation, blood clotting
  • Sources
    • Fatty fish (salmon, tuna) twice a week
    • Canola and soybean oil
    • Flaxseed, walnuts
    • Fish oil supplements (expensive and may contain heavy metals)
phytochemicals
Phytochemicals
  • ↓ inflammation
  • ↓ blood clotting
  • Include anthocyanins (found in red and blue fruits such as raspberries and blueberries and vegetables) lutein (green leafy vegetables) lycopene (tomato products), phenolics (citrus fruits, fruit juices, cereals, legumes, and oilseeds)
drug treatment
Drug Treatment
  • Statins: (e.g. Lovastatin, Pravastatin) lower LDL-C
  • Bile acid sequestrants: lower LDL-C, can be used with statins
  • Nicotinic acid: lowers LDL-C and triglycerides and raises HDL-C
  • Fibric acids: used mainly to lower triglycerides and raise HDL-C
prevention and management of hypertension
Prevention and Management of Hypertension
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Be physically active.
  • Follow a healthy eating plan.
  • Eat foods with less sodium (salt).
  • Drink alcohol only in moderation.
  • Take prescribed drugs as directed.

NHLBI Patient Guidelines, accessed 2-05

dash dietary approaches to stop hypertension
DASH: Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  • Eat foods that are low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
  • Eat more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lowfat dairy products
  • Eat more poultry, fish, nuts, and legumes
  • Eat less red meat, fats, sweets, and sugared beverages
  • Eat foods low in salt and sodium

NHLBI. DASH Eating Plan, revised 2003. Accessed 2-2005