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Non-Conformist Civil Rights. African-American leaders generally agreed that the poverty, violence, and drug addiction afflicting many black communities were rooted in racism, but they were divided on what strategy to pursue to eliminate them

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African-American leaders generally agreed that the poverty, violence, and drug addiction afflicting many black communities were rooted in racism, but they were divided on what strategy to pursue to eliminate them
    • Leaders like Martin Luther King wanted to hold the philosophy of non-violence
    • Younger leaders tended to be more militant, some even demanding a more radical, violent response.
black power
BLACK POWER
  • As the 1960s progressed, many of the younger black leaders focused on developing an attitude of self-esteem, racial pride, and resistance to racism.
  • This new movement was called “black power”
    • Young blacks abandoned the conservative dress of the older generation and adopted the Afro hairstyle
    • They stopped referring to themselves as “negroes” and demanded instead that they be called “blacks” or “African-Americans”
the nation of islam
THE NATION OF ISLAM
  • Founded in 1930, the leaders of the Nation of Islam called for a separate African-American nation.
  • rejects the notion that African-Americans can flourish in a society that, in its view, was built upon their enslavement.
  • argues that the enslavement of Africans in America separated them from Islam, their spiritual and cultural inheritance. Thus, the Nation has repeatedly argued for an independent black nation built upon the teachings of Islam.
malcolm x
Malcolm X
  • Born Malcolm Little
  • Opposed integration and embraced the black power movement;
  • In his speeches, Malcolm reiterated the Nation’s belief that Europeans are ‘blue-eyed devils’ who had enslaved the followers of Allah.
    • He also articulated the Nation’s claims that the entire white power structure of the United States needed to be dismantled if African-Americans were to gain equality.
  • In 1964, he founded his own religious organization (the Organization of Afro-American Unity), and began advocating universal brotherhood.
    • He began to distance himself, and eventually broke from, the Nation of Islam
  • In Feb. 1965, he was assassinated by 3 members of the Nation of Islam.
the black panther party
THE BLACK PANTHER PARTY
  • Founded in 1966 by Huey Newton
  • Originally focused on racism and police brutality
  • combined Black Nationalism, Marxist theories, and direct conflict with authorities to achieve its aims.
  • Its radical politics earned it the label of ‘the greatest threat to the internal security of the country.
  • The Party built upon Malcolm X’sBlack Nationalism by infusing it with Marxist teachings, including the inevitability of revolution.
  • An internal split over the necessity of violent revolution, coupled with FBI attempts to discredit and fracture the group, eventually led to a decline in the Black Panther Party’s influence.
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