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JEFFERSON 1801-1809 and MADISON 1809-1813. THOMAS JEFFERSON. Home is Monticello, VA Pictured on the nickel & $2 bill 1 st President inaugurated in Washington, D.C. On Mount Rushmore; a state capital named after him Declaration of Independence Died on the 4 th of July

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Jefferson 1801 1809 and madison 1809 1813

JEFFERSON1801-1809 andMADISON1809-1813

Thomas jefferson

Home is Monticello, VA

Pictured on the nickel & $2 bill

1st President inaugurated in Washington, D.C.

On Mount Rushmore; a state capital named after him

Declaration of Independence

Died on the 4th of July

Suffered from migraines

Kept live bears on White House lawn; had a pet mockingbird

Made macaroni & cheese, waffles & ice cream popular

Jefferson third president
JEFFERSON, Third President

  • Will serve two terms; Republican; VA

  • Hates crowds and making speeches; shrill voice

  • Multi-talented:

    • AGRICULTURALIST, Author, Architect, Attorney, Linguist, Educator, Inventor

  • Probably the most intellectual, intelligent President of U.S.

Jefferson the inventor
Jefferson the Inventor

Swivel chair, folding chair

Hidden staircases, dumb waiters

First “copy machine”

The contradictions of thomas jefferson
The Contradictions of Thomas Jefferson

  • A champion of individual liberty who owned slaves all his life.

  • A fiscal conservative who dies deeply in debt.

  • An agrarian idealist who thrives in big cities

  • A master politician who fears confrontation and abhors government power except when he wields it.

Jefferson slavery

“The rights of human nature are deeply wounded by this infamous practice of slavery.”

  • Inherits 5000 acres & 52 slaves at age 21

  • Inherits more later from father-in-law; ultimately number at Monticello is up to 267

  • Viewed slavery as morally wrong

  • Tried twice to pass legislation to emancipate slaves:

    • 1769, Virginia General Assembly

    • 1784, Continental Congress

  • In his draft of the Declaration of

    Independence in 1776, Jefferson blasted the

    King’s involvement in the Atlantic slave trade

  • President in 1808 – when the slave trade


  • Yet, Jefferson acquired and sold hundreds of slaves throughout his lifetime,

  • Jefferson was always deeply in debt (a heavy spender) and had encumbered his slaves by notes & mortgages

  • Jefferson could not free them until he was free of debt, which he never achieved.

  • All but one of Jefferson's slaves was sold after his death to pay his debts.

  • Relationship (for 37 years!), and children, with one of his slaves, Sally Hemings

    • Jefferson’s wife died in 1782 – deathbed wish…

    • Sally was child of Jefferson’s father-in-law and one of his slaves

Election of 1800
ELECTION OF 1800 throughout his lifetime,

  • Jefferson & Burr – Republican P & VP

  • Adams & Pinckney – Federalist P & VP

  • Jefferson & Burr each get 73 votes

  • Election thrown into House of Reps – each state gets one vote (16 states)

    • 35 ballot deadlock – 8 days!

    • Finally, HAMILTON convinces NY to change vote

  • 12th Amendment will change electoral college – P & VP now voted for separately

  • Was there a “Revolution of 1800” with his election?

    • No, Jeffersonians did take power in White House & Congress but…

    • 1stpeaceful transfer of power in world history!

    • Kept most Federalist programs

Jefferson s inaugural address
Jefferson’s Inaugural Address throughout his lifetime, :

  • Principles espoused in inaugural address:

    • Majority rule with minority rights

    • Equal rights for all people

    • Source of a government’s power is the people

    • Against entangling alliances

    • Promises to preserve gov’ts credit/pay off debts

    • Promises to stimulate commerce as well as agriculture

    • Stresses need to deemphasize party politics – “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.”

Jefferson s approach to office
Jefferson’s Approach to Office throughout his lifetime, :

  • Becomes a MODERATE as President

    • Did cut taxes (like Whiskey tax)

    • Naturalization Act – 5 yrs. reestablished

    • Did NOT try to alter balance of fed & state power but did have fundamental belief in strong states’ and individual rights

    • New tone: played down ceremonial aspects of presidency (“pell-mell is our law”).

Jefferson the courts
Jefferson & the Courts throughout his lifetime,

  • Fundamental belief that courts consistently overstepped overstepped their bounds in decisions

    • “throwing an anchor ahead”

  • Angered that Federalists had appointed the

    “midnight judges”

  • Chief Justice – John Marshall; the cousin he hated

  • Judiciary Act of 1801 – appointing of “midnight judges”

  • Marbury v. Madison

    • Marbury sues Madison for writ of mandamus ordering delivery of his commission as justice of peace

    • Marshall ruled against Marbury……. Congress had unconstitutionally tried to give this power to the Courts

    • Established principle of “JUDICIAL REVIEW”

      • Supreme Court has authority to review acts of Congress (& P) and determine whether they are constitutional

    • Jefferson furious; seeks impeachment

The Great Chief Justice

John Marshall

Jefferson the military
Jefferson & the Military throughout his lifetime,

  • Military Policies:

    • REDUCE IT! He’s “parsimonious!”

    • Use “peaceful coercion, not military force”

    • Saw large standing armies as an invitation to dictatorship

    • Why did he not fear navies as much?

      • couldn’t march inland & endanger freedom

  • Barbary Pirates & 1801 War with Tripoli

    • Tripoli declares war – Jefferson sends “Mosquito Fleet”

    • U.S. doesn’t really win, but is only nation to resist the blackmail

    • Greatest hero: Stephen Decatur

      • Captured 2 pirate ships; set fire to U.S. ship (Philadelphia) to keep it from pirates

Louisiana purchase
Louisiana Purchase throughout his lifetime,

  • SP-FR transfer in 1800

  • Right of deposit revoked in 1802

  • Problem of a French Louisiana?

  • Potential loss of New Orleans

  • French designs on North America

  • James Monroe & Robert Livingston sent to FR in 1803 to seek purchase of New Orleans for $10M

  • Napoleon's reason for selling: throughout his lifetime,

    • Santo Domingo defeat –doesn’t need LA as breadbasket

    • About to go to war with Britain

    • Hamilton also instrumental-Napoleon paid in U.S. bonds

  • Price: $15M for entire area of 828,000 sq. mi.

  • DOUBLED size of US

  • Jefferson troubled by constitutionality of the purchase but

    • Justified the purchase on basis that it was part of P’s implied powers to protect the nation

Lewis clark expedition 1804 1806
LEWIS & CLARK throughout his lifetime, EXPEDITION, 1804-1806

  • Accomplished all their objectives:

    • To find the source of the Missouri river

    • Find a usable route across the Rockies to Pacific Ocean

    • Observe Indian customs, features of the land, weather, plants & animals

  • Guide/Interpreter:

    • Sacagawea – “Bird Woman”

    • Shoshone Indian, married to a French-Canadian trapper

    • York – black slave – hunting, fishing skills

    • 48 men on the 3 year expedition

SACAJAWEA throughout his lifetime,

Stolen, held captive, sold, eventually reunited with the Shoshone Indians.

An interpreter and guide for Lewis and Clark in 1805-1806 with her husband Toussaint Charbonneau. She navigated carrying her son, Jean Baptiste, on her back. She traveled thousands of miles from the Dakotas to the Pacific Ocean.

The explorers said she was cheerful, never complained, and proved to be invaluable. She served as an advisor, caretaker, and is legendary for her perseverance and resourcefulness.

Burr vs hamilton
BURR vs. HAMILTON throughout his lifetime,

Burr vs hamilton1
BURR vs. HAMILTON throughout his lifetime,

  • Burr leaves Vice Presidency & runs for Gov. of NY

  • Hamilton works against him & keeps him from winning; also exposes Burr’s NE secession conspiracy (Essex Junto)

  • Burr challenges Hamilton to a duel

  • NJ, July -1804

  • Hamilton fires to miss; Burr fires to kill

  • Hamilton mortally wounded; dies

  • bankrupt; Federalists leaderless

  • Burr’s career over….

    • he & LA Gov. plot to take over Mexico; arrested & tried for treason – acquitted; flees to Europe

  • Jefferson reelected by landslide victory in 1804 winning all but 2 states

  • BRITISH (shark) & FRENCH (tiger) back at war by 1805 & both interfere with American neutral trading rights

  • British “Orders in Council” 1806

    • Kept US from trading with FR

  • French then issue order to seize

    all merchant ships in BR ports

  • BRITISH IMPRESSMENT: but 2 states

  • Legalized form of kidnapping where BR would stop ships, seize American sailors off of them & “press” them into service against their will (over 6,000 Americans between 1808 & 1811).

ATTACK ON THE CHESAPEAKE, 1807: but 2 states

U.S. warship; stopped by BR for search;

U.S. refused. BR fired. Killed 3 &

wounded 18. U.S. surrendered, BR

boarded & carried off 4 sailors.

Embargo act
EMBARGO ACT but 2 states

  • Americans are clamoring for war; Jefferson

    responds instead with EMBARGO ACT – Why?

    • Wanted to keep U.S. ships off seas & safe from BR & FR

    • Too “parsimonious” to build a good navy

  • Act is an economic sanction against the BR & FR that outlawed all trade with foreign countries

    • No US ships could leave country to trade – imports?

  • Effects of the Embargo Act?

    • Doesn’t really hurt BR or FR

    • Has disastrous effects for US -- goods rotting on the docks and smuggling increases

  • Repealed during Jefferson’s last week in office

    • Non-Intercourse Act substituted (reopened trade with all except BR & FR)

  • Jefferson’s miscalculations: but 2 states

    • Extent of European dependence on American trade

    • Unpopularity of act & difficulty of enforcing it in America

  • One positive effect: Manufacturing renewed in New England

Jefferson wants to be remembered as
Jefferson wants to be remembered as: but 2 states

The Founder

Of the


of Virginia

& the Author

of the

Declaration of


NOT as President


James madison 4 th president
JAMES but 2 statesMADISON4TH President

  • Two Terms, Republican, VA

  • Had served as Jefferson’s Secretary of State

  • Jefferson’s hand-picked successor for President

  • Shortest President: 5’4” & less than 100 pounds

  • Macon’s Bill No. 2, 1810

    • Commerce restored with all countries

    • BUT any violation of neutral commerce would require reapplication of Non-Intercourse Act

James madison on slavery

Saw slavery as politically, economically, and morally wrong but 2 states

Owned slaves

Indirectly freed one slave, rest were never freed

Pres. Of American Colonization Society

Felt that freed slaves could not live in white society, must be returned to Africa & compensation given to slave owners

Left $2,000 to society & proceeds from sale of his grist mill

James Madison on Slavery

  • An incident that illuminates James Madison's ambivalence toward the issue of slavery is the story of Billey, a body servant who accompanied him to Philadelphia during the Continental Congress. Madison wrote to his father at Montpelier:

  • "On a view of all circumstances I have judged it most prudent not to force Billey back to VA even if it could be done; and have accordingly taken measures for his final separation from me. I am persuaded his mind is too thoroughly tainted to be a fit companion for fellow slaves in VA. The laws here do not admit of his being sold for more than 7 years. I do not expect to get near the worth of him; but cannot think of punishing him by transportation merely for coveting that liberty for which we have paid the price of so much blood, and have proclaimed so often to be the right, and worthy pursuit, of every human being."— James Madison, Jr., to James Madison, Sr., 8 September 1783

  • His solution was to sell Billey to a Quaker, knowing that, by Pennsylvania law, Billey could only remain a slave for seven years and then would be freed. Billey was indeed freed, adopted the last name Gardner, and in his occupation as a merchant's agent, was lost at sea a few years later.

Tecumseh the battle of tippecanoe

Shawnee Indian; excellent leader and warrior toward the issue of slavery is the story of

Formed a Confederation of Indians in the trans-Appalachian region

Brother, Tenskwatawa – the “Prophet” – a fanatic who is on moral crusade for Indians to give up white culture & reclaim their own

While Tecumseh is away, his forces defeated by William Henry Harrison at Battle of Tippecanoe

End of his Indian confederation by 1811

Westerners claimed that the confederation was actually a BR scheme & cried for war against BR

Tecumseh joins BR & dies fighting with them in War of 1812


THE WAR OF 1812 toward the issue of slavery is the story of

“Mr. Madison’s War”

“The Second War for Independence”



  • Impressment

  • BR interference with US trade & neutrality rights

  • BR inciting of Indians (Westerners)

  • Land fever (FL, Canada)

War Hawks toward the issue of slavery is the story of

  • Objections to War by the

    Federalists …. New


  • Economic reasons – would be worse than Orders in Council

  • Realism – foolish to take on strongest Navy in world

    • U.S. has only 7 frigates

  • Real threat is Napoleon – and we’re aiding him if we go to war with BR

  • U.S. WINS EARLY BATTLES at sea. toward the issue of slavery is the story of


  • BR are too involved in Europe fighting Napoleon to concentrate on U.S.

  • Attack on Canada will fail (poorly planned)

Commander oliver hazard perry lake erie
COMMANDER OLIVER HAZARD PERRY – LAKE ERIE toward the issue of slavery is the story of

Commander oliver hazard perry lake erie1
COMMANDER OLIVER HAZARD PERRY – LAKE ERIE toward the issue of slavery is the story of

  • Most important naval victory in the War!

  • Summer 1813

  • Perry’s ship shot to pieces

  • Had to row to sister ship, Niagra, during heavy battle

  • Took charge of Niagra and defeated British

  • “We have met the enemy and they are ours!”

  • Instant hero

British strategy
British Strategy: toward the issue of slavery is the story of

  • After Napoleon's defeat in 1814, concentrate entire forces on U.S.

  • 3 major invasions:

  • Attack from Chesapeake Bay

    • Washington, D.C.

    • Baltimore, MD

  • Attack at New Orleans

Washington d c
WASHINGTON, D.C. toward the issue of slavery is the story of


  • Burn the Capitol, White House & other public buildings

    • Done in retaliation for US burning of York, Canada

  • Dolley Madison

    • Escapes from White House with original of Washington’s portrait, etc.

  • Effect: enlistments!

Battle at ft mchenry baltimore
BATTLE AT FT. toward the issue of slavery is the story of McHENRY (Baltimore)

Americans win and

turn the British away after 25 hour bombardment.

BR then defeated at Plattsburg, NY - retreat to Canada & war is effectively over.

“STAR-SPANGLED BANNER” toward the issue of slavery is the story of

Francis Scott Key

Jackson s florida campaigns
Jackson’s Florida Campaigns toward the issue of slavery is the story of

Hartford convention
HARTFORD CONVENTION toward the issue of slavery is the story of

  • NE Federalists – Dec. 1814 / Jan. 1815

  • To protest war & plan convention of states to revise Constitution

  • Primary concern – continuation of trade w/BR

  • New England Radicals – seeking secession (minority)

  • Proposed Constitutional amendments:

    • Repeal 3/5 compromise

    • Require 2/3 vote of Congress for war & new states

    • Reduce Congress’ power to restrict trade

    • Limit P’s to 1 term

  • Totally discredited by Treaty – why?

Battle of new orleans
BATTLE OF toward the issue of slavery is the story of NEW ORLEANS

  • Americans are led by Gen. Andrew Jackson

  • Recruits militia, blacks, & pirates, etc.

  • Jackson’s plan to defeat the British?

Sheltered behind earthen parapet & cotton bales. toward the issue of slavery is the story of

Picked off 2000 BR soldiers as they advance in open.

But the irony of this battle is
But the irony of this battle is …..? toward the issue of slavery is the story of

Treaty of ghent
TREATY OF GHENT toward the issue of slavery is the story of

  • Just a Cease-Fire; an Armistice

  • A return to the “status quo ante-bellum”

  • Last treaty of peace between US & BR

  • Why does U.S. claim victory?

Effects of the war
EFFECTS OF THE WAR toward the issue of slavery is the story of

  • America viewed as a major world power

  • Validity of republican form of government is established (America held off BR despite the internal frictions)

  • Federalist Party is effectively destroyed


  • Internal improvements (transportation)

  • Indians are primary losers –esp. those opposing Jackson; US gains 23 million acres in AL & GA

  • Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817

  • Convention of 1818

  • Adams-Onis Treaty, 1819 (Florida!)