slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP)

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 20

Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 204 Views
  • Uploaded on

Effective Coaching. “The Institute for Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) is housed within the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University. IPEP was established in 2000 and its mission is to develop excellence within business, sport and the military.”

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP)' - henrik


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Effective Coaching

“The Institute for Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) is housed within the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University. IPEP was established in 2000 and its mission is to develop excellence within business, sport and the military.”

http://ipep.bangor.ac.uk/

Structuring Practice & Delivering Feedback

Dr. Gavin Lawrence

School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences

Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP)

slide2

Skill acquisition/coaching process

Conveying information

Structuring practice

Providing feedback

Variability of practice,

Contextual interference

Demonstrations Verbal instructions

Precision, Frequency, Timing, assistance

Figure 1. The skill acquisition/coaching process (adapted from Lavelle et al., 2003)

Effective Coaching

slide3

How do we learn and store skills?

Schema Theory (Schmidt, 1975)

1. Initial conditions(body position, wind strength, rig, boat class)

2. Parameters/commandsassigned to the

movement program (movement force & timing)

3. Feedbackabout the movement outcome

4. Sensory consequencesof the movement

(proprioception, audition, visual)

Individual movement

Movement commands

Movement outcome

Schema for different skills

slide4

Structuring Practice

What is contextual interference?

What is variability of practice?

How do they work?

How and when should we prescribe them?

Practice makes Perfect?

10,000 hrs

Development of skill is generally and positively related to practice

Perfect Practice makes Perfect?

Optimisation of performance during practice will lead to the best memory of what has been ‘learned’

slide5

Time constraints require the teaching/re-learning of more than one skill (actions from different skills; tacking, Gybing, sail setting, heeling)

How do we schedule the practice session to get the best learning?

Blocked

Random

Repeated rehearsal of one task before moving on to another

1hr session – 3 skills

20 mins on skill 1, 20 mins on skill 2, then 20 mins on skill 3

Good performance

Repeated rehearsal of one task is avoided

1hr session – 3 skills

Skill 1, 2 and 3 are practiced in an assorted/intermingled fashion

Poor performance

Poor learningGood learning

slide6

How do we schedule the practice session to get the best learning?

Contextual Interference

Structure conditions that lead to poor practice performance often lead to better learning

Why?

ACTION PLAN RECONSTRUCTION

(Lee & Magill, 1985)

ELABORATION HYPOTHESIS

(Shea & Zimny, 1983)

RETROACTIVE INHIBITION

(Dey, 1969)

Must be:

Different Skills

Greater the difference, greater the effect

Challenging the performer

slide7

How do we schedule the practice session to get the best learning?

Variability of Practice

Variable

Constant

Movements from the same class of actions (Same skill)

Initial conditions

Constant

Repeated rehearsal of one criterion outcome of a single action (same direction and distance)

Good performance

Poor learning

Movement commands

Variable

Rehearsal of a variety of movement outcomes with the same action (different directions and distances)

Poor performance

Good learning

Movement outcome

slide8

How to effectively structure practice?

Contextual interference vs.. variable practice?

Skills from different classes of movements (different skills)

Modifications of the same skill

Low CIHigh CI

BlockedRandom

Novice Intermediate/Experienced

Children Adults

Early stages of learning – need to understand ‘what’ is required (Gentile, 1972, 2000) engage in complex cognitive tasks (Fitts and Posner, 1964) constrain multiple joints to act together (Bernstein, 1967)

slide9

Structuring Practice

Random

Adults

Experienced/Experts

Low High

Variability of Practice

Variable

Constant

Contextual Interference

LowHigh

Children

Novices

Children

Novices

Blocked

slide10

Skill acquisition/coaching process

Conveying information

Structuring practice

Providing feedback

Variability of practice,

Contextual interference

Demonstrations Verbal instructions

Precision, Frequency, Timing, assistance

Figure 1. The skill acquisition/coaching process (adapted from Lavelle et al., 2003)

Effective Coaching

slide11

Providing Feedback

Nominal task difficulty: difficulty regardless of performance

Functional task difficulty: how challenging the task is relative to the skill level

Expert

Skilled

Intermediate

Novice

Performance/predicted success

low

high

Nominal task difficulty

slide12

Feedback and Task Difficulty

No learning without information/feedback

Learning reduced with too much information

Learning achievement depends on optimal amount of information which differs as a function of skill level.

Optimal Challenge points.

Considerable

Expert

Skilled

Intermediate

Novice

Potential available feedback

Performance decrease

Optimal challenge points

Minimal

low

high

functional task difficulty

slide13

Feedback and Task Difficulty

high

high

Performance in practice (solid line)

Potential learning benefit (dashed line)

Optimal challenge point

Potential learning benefit

low

low

low

high

functional task difficulty

slide14

Feedback and Task Difficulty

expert

high

high

Performance in practice (solid line)

Potential learning benefit (dashed line)

novice

Optimal challenge point

low

low

low

high

functional task difficulty

slide15

Feedback and Task Difficulty

Do we need to provide it?

How much should we provide?

When should we provide it?

How precise should it be?

FREQUENCY, PRECISION, AND TIMING.

slide16

Feedback and Task Difficulty

Structuring practice and optimal learning point – CHALLENGING THE LEARNER.

Feedback – often too much, too precise and too soon

‘misty coaching world’

Bandwidth

Summary

Self Selected

Appropriate Focus of Attention

slide17

Feedback Specifics

Sensory FB

Is the learner experienced?

Is the task simple?

Does the learner comprehend the fundamental motion/movement pattern?

Provide fundamental movementFB

no

no

no

yes

yes

Provide movement parameterFB

yes

Provide more precise FB

Provide less frequent FB

Intrinsic FB sufficient

Provide FB when requested

slide18

Review Nov 13

Feedback and Focus of Attention

Internal focus

Attention is directed to performers own body

External focus

Attention is directed at the effects that the performers movements have on the environment

What type of instructions do you give?

Instructions and feedback – typically given about the movement pattern or technique

Coordination; order, form, timing etc.

Ineffective when compared to external focus of attention!!!

slide19

Feedback and Focus of Attention

Cognitive/novice

Autonomous/expert

Internal focus; performers consciously control their actions, constrain the motor system and intervene with automatic control processes

External focus; allows unconscious, fast, reflexive processes to control actions; outcome is achieved as a ‘by-product’.

Forces learners to the autonomous end of the continuum

Forces learners to the cognitive end of the continuum

Constrained action hypothesis (Wulf & colleagues (2001,2001,2003)

slide20

Effective Coaching

“The Institute for Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) is housed within the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University. IPEP was established in 2000 and its mission is to develop excellence within business, sport and the military.”

http://ipep.bangor.ac.uk/

THANK YOU FOR LISTENING!!

Dr. Gavin Lawrence

School of Sport, Health & Exercise Sciences

Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP)