Archaeological Analysis Quick Introduction to Typology
Typology • System for organizing data using attributes or observable aspects of artifacts. • Aspects: identifiable nominal variables. • May or may not have meaning or relevance in real world.
Eye of the beholder • Stylistic attributes • Form attributes • Technological attributes • Functional categories
Material and form Aspects (ratios) Place of use and context for meaning Categories (refer to pages 142-159 in your textbook)
Archaeologists apply typological analysis to artifacts when trying to make sense of a class of objects that seem to cluster or form groups with variation. • Example: smoking pipes, footwear, projectile points, beads, bowls, ceramic temper, color… • Can be extended to features...
What distinguishes a wine bottle from a milk bottle? • What is it that makes a tea cup not a coffee mug? What distinguishes cup from mug? • When is a shoe formal or casual? • What is a porringer?
Historic 19th century Naja Recent Naja 1940
Simulation Exercise 2 • Naja typology • Identify attributes of several Naja and organize by typological branching. • Ideally, when finished, you should be able to create a sequential chart that would allow someone to place a new Naja into the chart based on your attribute (criteria) analysis.
Procedures • Cooperative groups of two. • Each group to produce a single typological chart for assessment. • Chart should be presentable. • Individual synthesis papers describing and validating (defending) typology criteria.