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Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions. Salts That Form Neutral Solutions. Salts that contain a cation from a strong base AND an anion from a strong acid. e.g. NaCl & Ca(NO 3 ) 2. Salts That Form Acidic Solutions. Salts that contain a metal cation (excluding those in Groups 1 & 2) OR

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slide1

Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions

Salts That Form Neutral Solutions

Salts that contain a cation from a strong base AND an anion from

a strong acid.

e.g. NaCl & Ca(NO3)2

slide2

Salts That Form Acidic Solutions

Salts that contain a metal cation (excluding those in Groups 1 & 2) OR

a cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base AND the anion from

a strong acid.

e.g. NH4Cl & Fe(NO3)3

slide3

Salts That Form Basic Solutions

Salts that contain a cation from a strong base AND an anion that is the

conjugate base of a weak acid.

e.g. NaC2H3O2 & Mg(HCO3)2

slide4

Hydrolysis

The reaction of an ion with water to produce an acidic or basic solution.

NH3(aq) + H3O+(aq)

e.g. NH4+(aq) + H2O (l)

acidic

e.g. C2H3O2-(aq) + H2O (l)

HC2H3O2(aq) + OH-(aq)

basic

slide5

What Happens if a Salt Has an Acidic Cation and a Basic Cation?

e.g. Fe(C2H3O2)3

Ka for Fe3+ = 1.5 X 10-3

Kb for C2H3O2- = 5.6 X 10-10

Since Ka > Kb, A solution of Fe(C2H3O2)3 would be acidic.

slide6

What Happens if a Salt Contains an Amphoteric Ion?

An amphoteric ion can hydrolyze as an acid OR a base.

e.g. HCO3-, H2PO4-, HPO42-, HSO4-, etc.

If the Ka for the ion is > its Kb, the ion will act as an acid.

e.g. For HSO4-, the Ka is 1.0 X 10-2 and its Kb is 1.0 X 10-12.

Therefore, this ion will hydrolyze as an acid in water.

HSO4-(aq) + H2O (l)

SO42-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

If the Kb for the ion is > its Ka, the ion will act as an acid.

e.g. For HCO3- , the Ka is 4.7 X 10 -11 and its Kb is 2.1 X 10 -4.

Therefore, this ion will act as a base in water:

HCO3-(aq) + H2O (l)

H2CO3(aq) + OH-(aq)