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IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu Livia Segurado

IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu Livia Segurado

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IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu Livia Segurado

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  1. IAA L35 ANGLAIS2015-2016Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individuLivia Segurado

  2. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE ELIZABETHAN AGE AND MIND Queen Elizabeth I (reign: 1558-1603) Portrait of Elizabeth I of England in her coronation robes. Copy c. 1600–1610

  3. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu REFORMATION AND POLITICS King Henry VIII (reign: 1509-1547) Portrait of Henry VIII of England Copy of Hans Holbein the Younger . 1536 or 1537

  4. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu REFORMATION AND POLITICS • The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th-century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. These events were, in part, associated with the wider process of the European Protestant Reformation, a religious and political movement that affected the practice of Christianity across all of Europe during this period. • It was based on Henry VIII's desire for an annulment of his marriage (first requested of Pope Clement VII in 1527), because he wanted to marry somebody else who could give him an heir. The English Reformation was at the outset more of a political affair than a theological dispute. • The break with Rome was effected by a series of acts of Parliament passed between 1532 and 1534 - in 1534 the Act of Supremacy declared that Henry was the "Supreme Head on earth of the Church of England.“ • Following Mary's childless death, her half-sister Elizabeth inherited the throne. One of the most important concerns during Elizabeth's early reign was religion. Elizabeth could not be a Roman Catholic, as that church considered her illegitimate. At the same time, she had observed the turmoil brought about by Edward's introduction of radical Protestant reforms. [Edward VI (reign:1547-1553) crowned at the age of nine, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was England's first monarch to be raised as a Protestant]. • Elizabeth relied primarily on her chief advisors, Sir William Cecil, as her Secretary of State, and Sir Nicholas Bacon, as the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, for direction on the matter. She supported her father's idea of reforming the church but made some minor adjustments, e.g.: more tolerant of dissidents. In this way, Elizabeth and her advisors aimed at a church that included most opinions.

  5. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu REFORMATION AND POLITICS • Henry VII - the problem of succession • The English Reformation started in the reign of Henry VIII. The English Reformation was to have far reaching consequences in Tudor England. Henry VIII decided to rid himself of his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, after she had failed to produce a male heir to the throne. He had already decided who his next wife would be – Anne Boleyn. By 1527, Catherine was considered too old to have anymore children. However, a divorce was not a simple issue. In fact, it was a very complicated one. Henry VIII was a Roman Catholic and the head of this church was the pope based in Rome. • The Roman Catholic faith believed in marriage for life. It did not recognise, let alone support, divorce. Those who were widowed were free to re-marry; this was an entirely different issue. But husbands could not simply decide that their marriage was not working, divorce their wife and re-marry. The Roman Catholic Church simply did not allow it. • This put Henry VIII in a difficult position. If he went ahead and announced that as king of England he was allowing himself a divorce, the pope could excommunicate him. This meant that under Catholic Church law, your soul could never get to Heaven. To someone living at the time of Henry, this was a very real fear, and a threat which the Catholic Church used to keep people under its control. • Another approach Henry used was to make a special appeal to the pope so that he might get a special “Papal Dispensation”. This meant that the pope would agree to Henry’s request for a divorce purely because Henry was king of England but that it would not affect the way the Catholic Church banned divorce for others. The pope refused to grant Henry this and by 1533 his anger was such that he ordered the Archbishop of Canterbury to grant him a divorce so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. • The Archbishop granted Henry his divorce – against the wishes of the pope. This event effectively lead to England breaking away from the Roman Catholic Church based in Rome. Henry placed himself as head of the church and in that sense, in his eyes, his divorce was perfectly legal. • Adapted from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/tudor-england/the-reformation/

  6. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE FOUR ELEMENTS

  7. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE FOUR HUMOURS

  8. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE FOUR HUMOURS

  9. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE FOUR HUMOURS

  10. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE FOUR HUMOURS

  11. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu MACROCOSM - MICROCOSM The Ancient and Medieval cosmos as depicted in Peter Apian's Cosmographia (Antwerp, 1539).

  12. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu MACROCOSM - MICROCOSM Macrocosm and microcosm is an ancient Greek Neo-Platonic schema of seeing the same patterns reproduced in all levels of the cosmos, from the largest scale (macrocosm or universe-level) all the way down to the smallest scale (microcosm or sub-sub-atomic or even metaphysical-level). In the system the midpoint is Man, who summarizes the cosmo. Macrocosm/microcosm is a Greek compound of μακρο- "Macro-" and μικρο- "Micro-," which are Greek respectively for "large" and "small," and the word κόσμος kósmos which means "order" as well as "world" or "ordered world.“ The paired concept of Macrocosm and Microcosm presents the idea that there is a corresponding similarity in pattern, nature, or structure between human beings and the universe. The concept of microcosm/macrocosm views man as a smaller representation of the universe. Cosmos means not only the totality of the universe but it implies that the universe is ordered by the principle of harmony and balance. In Neo-Platonism, the cosmos and human being are conceived not as totally separated beings but as a continuous existence. The soul and body or the spirituality and the materiality were conceived as one fused existence, and the fusion of spirituality/materiality was applied to all beings. With the idea of God's Creation of the universe, the concept of man as a microcosm flourished. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) explained that man exists in a level between the angelic and the animal realm, or between the spiritual and physical realm. In other words, he conceived the human being as a microcosm that encapsulates the entire cosmos by containing both spirituality and materiality.

  13. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu ASTRONOMY Ptolemaic view of the universe Figure of the heavenly bodies — An illustration of the Ptolemaic geocentric system by Portuguese cosmographer and cartographer Bartolomeu Velho, 1568 (Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)

  14. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu ASTRONOMY Ptolemeus’s geocentric model

  15. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu ASTRONOMY Copernican view of the universe Heliocentric model from Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543)

  16. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu ORDER – THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING Hierarchical scale

  17. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING Hierarchical scale

  18. IAA L35 ANGLAIS 2015-2016 Patterns of Individuality – Les figures de l’individu THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING