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EARLY FEDERAL ERA POLITICS 1792 - 1800
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  1. EARLY FEDERAL ERA POLITICS1792 - 1800 FEDERalistsVERSUS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA THANKS TO SUSAN POJER FOR ELECTION CHARTS AND MAPS

  2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: NARROW: WHY DID THE TWO-PARTY SYSTEM DEVELOP? WHAT ISSUES DIVIDED THE FEDERALISTS AND DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS BROAD; HOW AND WHEN DID U.S. IDENTITY (NATIONALISM) ARISE? WHAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR?

  3. BACKGROUND/ REVIEW • CONSTITUTION DID NOT CONTEMPLATE POLITICAL PARTIES. EXAMPLE: ARTICLE II PROCEDURE FOR PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS: • 1ST PLACE IN ELECTORAL COLLEGE = PRESIDENT • 2ND PLACE = VICE PRESIDENT • IF TIE  HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES DECIDES • IN THE FEDERALIST HAMILTON AND MADISON REPEATEDLY SAID THERE’D BE NO PROBLEMS WITH “FACTIONS” BECAUSE U.S. = LARGE REPUBLIC (LOL!)

  4. ALWAYS IN THE BACKGROUND: SECTIONAL (N/S) DIFFERENCES AND DISPUTE OVER FEDERALISM – STATE SOVEREIGNTY • ONLY EASY PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION IN U.S. HISTORY = 1788 – GEORGE WASHINTON ELECTED FIRST PRESIDENT, JOHN ADAMS = VICE PRESIDENT

  5. Washington’s Cabinet • Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of War- Henry Knox • Attorney General- Edmund Randolph • Postmaster General- Samuel Osgood • Secretary of Treasury- Alexander Hamilton

  6. HAMILTON VERSUS JEFFERSON NORTH VERSUS SOUTH

  7. WHAT DID JEFFERSON AND HAMILTON ALMOST IMMEDIATELY DISAGREE OVER? • THE BANK OF THE UNITED STATES • HAMILTON PROPOSED THE BANK : • CHARTERED BY CONGRESS BUT PRIVATE - $10 MILLION IN STOCK • $ 8 MILLION - PRIVATE INVESTORS (IN SPECIE), $2 MILLION -- U.S., BORROWED FROM THE BANK • RUN MINT – UNIFORM CURRENCY • COLLECT TAXES • BORROW FOR AND LEND TO U.S.

  8. BANK WOULD ASSUME ALL REVOLUTIONARY WAR DEBT (FEDERAL, STATE) -- FUNDING AT PAR= BANK WOULD BUY AT FACE VALUE • HAMILTON TIPPED OFF NEW YORK FINANCIERS – BOUGHT UP STATE WAR DEBT AT DISCOUNTS – • A MESSAGE THAT U.S WOULD FAVOR INDUSTRY AND FINANCE • BANK NEEDED $100 MILLION FOR ASSUMPTION OF WAR DEBT – HOW DID HAMILTON PROPOSE TO RAISE THAT $$? • EXCISE TAX ON WHISKEY AND TARIFFS ON IMPORTS • HAMILTON ALSO SAID THESE TAXES WOULD BE A “DISCIPLINE” ON PEOPLE TO SHOW POWER OF FED. GOV’T

  9. HAMILTON’S AND JEFFERSON’S ARGUMENTS ON THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE BANK • (PHD 7-4) – LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION VERSUS STRICT CONSTRUCTION • HAMILTON – LIBERAL CONSTRUCTION OF COMMERCE AND NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSES • JEFFERSON – STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH • WASHINGTON SIDED WITH HAMILTON • COMPROMISE OF 1790: JEFFERSON AND MADISON AGREED SOUTHERN STATES WOULD VOTE FOR BANK, HAMILTON AGREED CAPITOL WOULD BE IN THE SOUTH (WASHINGTON, D.C. LATER CARVED OUT OF VIRGINIA AND MARYLAND)

  10. THE FIRST BANK OF THE UNITED STATES, PHILADELPHIA. CHARTERED BY CONGRESS, 1790, ESTABLISHED 1791. BANK, ASSUMPTION, EXCISE TAX, TARIFFS = MAJOR POWER GRAB BY FEDERAL GOV’T, INCURSION ON STATES’ RIGHTS

  11. THE OTHER MAJOR DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN HAMILTON AND JEFFERSON: “OPPOSING VISIONS FOR THE NEW NATION “, PHD 7-5 • HAMILTON’S REPORT ON MANUFACTURERS (1791) U.S . SHOULD BE A GREAT INDUSTRIAL NATION. • CONGRESS SHOULD ENCOURAGE MFGR. – TARIFFS, SUBSIDIES, IMMIGRATION POLICY GREAT FALLS OF PATERSON, N.J. (ACROSS FROM NYC) – HAMILTON KNEW U.S. HAD THE ENERGY SOURCES AND NATURAL RESOURCES TO BECOME GREATEST INDUSTRIAL NATION AND BELIEVED THAT WOULD MAKE U.S. MORE POWERFUL THAN PLANTATION AGRICULTURE

  12. JEFFERSON (NOTES ON THE STATE OF VIRGINIA) – • U.S. SHOULD BE AN AGRICULTURAL NATION, AVOID INDUSTRY: • “YEOMAN FARMERS” ARE THE BACKBONE OF DEMOCRACY [RECALL, JEFFERSON WAS A RICH PLANTATION OWNER!] -- PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR WAGES BECOME “SUBSERVIENT” • “THOSE WHO LABOUR IN THE EARTH ARE THE CHOSEN OF GOD [RECALL, JEFFERSON WAS A DEIST!] • “THE MOBS OF GREAT CITIES ADD JUST SO MUCH TO THE SUPPORT OF PURE GOVERNMENT AS SORES TO TO THE STRENGTH OF THE HUMAN BODY [LOVER OF DEMOCRACY!]

  13. HAMILTON’S ECONOMIC POLICIES CLEARLY WORKED – BUT BY 1792 THERE WAS AN OPPOSITION PARTY ! HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES REJECTED HAMILTON’S REPORT ON MFG. WERE THE DEM-REPS CONCERNED ABOUT THE NATION, OR ABOUT POWER?

  14. 1792 Election Results (16 states in the Union)

  15. 1792 Election Results (16 states in the Union)

  16. 1792 Election Results

  17. CHALLENGES (AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR POLITICAL DISPUTES) DURING SECOND WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION • 1. LAYING DOWN THE LAW AND SHOWING THE POWER OF THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT: THE WHISKEY REBELLION (1791-94) • THE EXCISE TAX ON WHISKEY HIT WESTERN FARMERS HARDEST • RICH COMMERCIAL DISTILLERS (LIKE GEORGE WASHINGTON) COULD PAY FLAT FEE = LESS PER GALLON THE MORE WHISKEY THEY MADE

  18. POOR WESTERN FARMERS WHO RAN THEIR OWN LITTLE STILLS PAID PER GALLON = MORE • “HARD LIQUOR IS A NECESSITY OF LIFE IN THE SOUTH. ” ANDREW JACKSON. • * TRUE – NOT JUST TO DRINK, AS MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE • OTHER PROBLEMS FOR WESTERN FARMERS: SPAIN CLOSED OFF MISSISSIPPI RIVER; NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR • 1791-94 – INCIDENTS ON FRONTIER, ESP. WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA (OHIO VALLEY) – HARASSING, TARRING AND FEATHERING FEDERAL REVENUE AGENTS (REVENUERS – “REVENOORS”)

  19. HAMILTON PUBLISHED ESSAYS UNDER PSEUDONYM “TULLY” BLAMING UNREST ON DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS • BUT HE MIGHT HAVE PROVOKED ARMED REBELLION – SENT OUT WRITS REQUIRING FRONTIER DISTILLERS TO COME TO PHILADELPHIA FOR TRIALS • JULY 1794 – ARMED REVOLT IN W. PA. BY ABOUT 500 FARMERS – TRYING TO ARREST FEDERAL REVENUE AGENTS, BURNING HOUSES ETC.

  20. GAVE WASHINGTON AND HAMILTON THE (WELCOME) OPPORTUNITY TO CALL OUT MILITIAS, DRAFT ≈ 30,000 FEDERAL TROOPS MARCH TO W. PA. TO PUT DOWN REBELLION • FEWER THAN 5 KILLED – BUT MAJOR DEMONSTRATION OF POWER OF FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (AND FODDER FOR JEFFERSON, TOO!)

  21. FOREIGN AFFAIRS – THE PROBLEM OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION & YET ANOTHER ANGLO-FRENCH WAR • FRENCH REVOLUTION “REIGN OF TERROR” – HOT TOPIC IN U.S. – DEMOCRACY GONE WILD – COULD IT HAPPEN HERE? FODDER FOR FEDERALISTS. • THE U.S. DILEMMA – MAYBE OUR REVOLUTIONARY WAR TREATY / ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE (1778_ REQUIRED US TO SIDE WITH FRANCE (COMMERCIALLY) – BUT WE RELIED ON EXPORTS TO AND SOME EXPORTS FROM BRITAIN • BRITAIN HAD THE BRITISH NAVY – STOPPED OUR SHIPS, IMPRESSED SAILORS, ETC. -- AND STILL HAD FORTS IN WESTERN U.S.

  22. DOMESTIC POLITICAL DISPUTE: • JEFFERSON: TRADE CONCESSIONS TO FRANCE IF BRITAIN REFUSED TO ACCEPT U.S. SOVEREIGNTY • HAMILTON: TREATY WITH BRITAIN. U.S. COULDN’T TAKE ON BRITAIN • CITIZEN GENÉT AFFAIR – FRENCH MINISTER TO U.S. ORGANIZED U.S. PRIVATEERS TO ATTACK BRITISH SHIPS -- DANGER!! • APRIL 22, 1793 – WASHINGTON ISSUED PROCLAMATION OF NEUTRALITY • DIDN’T WORK – BRITAIN CLOSED OFF WEST INDIES TO U.S. SHIPS  HAMILTON GOT HIS WAY!

  23. JAY’S TREATY (HAMILTON). SIGNED 1794, RATIFIED 1796) • BRITAIN AGREED TO TURN OVER FORTS IN U.S. TERRITORY • U.S. AGREED TO GRANT BRITAIN MOST-FAVORED NATION TRADE STATUS • U.S. GOT RIGHT TO EXPORT MFG. GOODS TO WEST INDIES AND INDIA (GREAT FOR NORTH) -- IN EXCHANGE FOR LIMITING COTTON EXPORTS TO BRITAN (BAD FOR SOUTH) • ALSO BRITAIN DID NOT AGREE TO COMPENSATION FOR SLAVES IT FREED DURING REVOLUTION

  24. PINCKNEY’S TREATY AKA TREATY OF SAN LORENZO (1796) – JAY’S TREATY SCARED SPAIN INTO THINKING U.S. AND BRITAIN WOULD ALLY TO DRIVE SPAIN OUT OF NORTH AMERICA • SPAIN AGREED TO OPEN MISSISSIPPI – GAVE U.S. RIGHT OF DEPOSIT AT NEW ORLEANS (DUTY-FREE LADING) • SPAIN CEDED “WEST FLORIDA” TO U.S. CHARLES PINCKNEY

  25. 3. NORTHWEST INDIAN WAR AKA “LITTLE TURTLE’S WAR” (THIS HAS FOREIGN RELATIONS ELEMENT, TOO) NORTHWEST ORDINANCE PROMISED NOT TO TAKE INDIAN LANDS (LOL). BRITISH TROOPS IN U.S. TERRITORY AIDED MIAMI NDIAN RESISTANCE TO U.S.

  26. A LESSON ABOUT HISTORIOGRAPHY: • WAR ACTUALLY BEGAN IN 1790 – WASHINGTON ORDERED WAR AGAINST MIAMIS • 1791 – 1792 – U.S. TROOPS UNDER GENERAL JOSHUA HARMAR AND GENERAL ARTHUR ST. CLAIR SUFFER CRUSHING DEFEATS – HUNDREDS OF SOLDIERS KILLED THOSE BATTLES HAVE NO NAMES: AS IF THEY NEVER HAPPENED (NO MENTION IN U.S. HISTORY TEXTBOOKS UNTIL RECENTLY)

  27. IT WAS A CRISIS IN WASHINGTON’S SECOND ADMINISTRATION – U.S. HAD TO WIN WAR – KICK BRITISH OUT OF OUR TERRITORY • THE BATTLE THE U.S. WON HAS A NAME = “BATTLE OF FALLEN TIMBERS” (1794) U.S. TROOPS UNDER GENERAL “MAD ANTHONY” WAYNE DEFEATED MIAMIS AND ALLIES WAYNE – DEVELOPED MORE “PROFESSIONAL, “ DISCIPLINED TROOPS

  28. TREATY OF GREENVILLE (1795): FOR ≈ $20,000 WORTH OF BLANKETS, POTS AND PANS, ETC. INDIANS CEDE MOST OF OHIO, ILLIINOIS (ALL U.S. WANTED AT THE MOMENT IN THE END, IT BECAME JUST ANOTHER BROKEN TREATY, BUT . . .

  29. TREATY OF GREENVILLE IS SIGNICANT BECAUSE IT CREATED INDIAN ANNUITY SYSTEM – ANNUAL PAYMENTS OF $ AND CALICO CLOTH TO TREATY INDIANS  INCREASED FEDERAL CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES (THE KIND OF THING COLLEGE BOARD THINKS IS IMPORTANT!) • ALSO, ALL BRITISH TROOPS OUT OF U.S. TERRITORY (FOR A WHILE) – JAY’S TREATY • MEANWHILE, JEFFERSON: DON’T FIGHT INDIANS! TEACH THEM TO FARM AND THEY’LL BE GOOD CITIZENS [N.B. – NO PROBLEMS W/ INDIANS IN VIRGINIA!]

  30. ELECTION OF 1796 – ADAMS V. JEFFERSONONCE FRIENDS AND ALLIES DURING REVOLUTION – NOW BITTER POLITICAL ENEMIES HAMILTON SCHEMED TO GET PINCKNEY RATHER THAN ADAMS ELECTED – BACKFIRED  PRESIDENT AND V.P. OF DIFFERENT PARTIES

  31. 1796 Election Results (16 states in the Union)

  32. 1796 Election Results – NOTICE ANYTHING?

  33. WASHINGTON’S “FAREWELL ADDRESS” (PHD 7-8)(1796) ADVOCATED ISOLATIONISM (NO “FOREIGN ENTANGLEMENTS” TO AVOID FACTIONALISM AND FOREIGN INFLUENCE FREQUENTLY CITED BY MODERN REPUBLICANS

  34. JOHN ADAMS • Second President (1797 – 1801) • Protected American interests by waging the Quasi-War with France • TRIED TO WALK MIDDLE COURSE BETWEEN “HIGH FEDERALISTS” AND DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS, ESP. ON FOREIGN POLICY • Discredited by Alien and Sedition Acts • THE FIRST ONE-TERM PRESIDENT

  35. THE “QUASI-WAR” WITH FRANCE (1798 – 1800) • CAUSES: • FRENCH RETALIATION FOR JAY’S TREATY – SEIZED OVER 300 U.S. SHIPS (U.S. STILL HAD NO NAVY!) • ADAMS SENT DELEGATION TO FRANCE TO NEGOTIATE – JOHN MARSHALL, ELBRIDGE GERRY AND CHARLES PINCKNEY

  36. THE “XYZ” AFFAIR: 3 FRENCH AGENTS (X. Y AND Z) DEMANDED $12 MILLION LOAN TO FRANCE AND $250,000 “TRIBUTE” TO FRENCH MINISTER OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS CHARLES TALLEYRAND – OTHERWISE NO NEGOTIATIONS • “MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, NOT ONE PENNY FOR TRIBUTE” – UTTERED BY FEDERALIST FROM S. CAROLINA, IT BECOMES MANTRA FOR DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS  NO TREATY, QUASI WAR TALLEYRAND

  37. THE XYZ AFFAIRA British cartoon shows the United States (young lady in feathered Indian headdress) being accosted by impertinent and avaricious diplomats representing Revolutionary France.

  38. BEGINNINGS OF NAVY (AND MARINES) • NAVY ACT OF 1794 • DEPARTMENT OF NAVY CREATED (UNDER WAR DEPARTMENT) • AUTHORIZED 6 FRIGATES FOR DEFENSE OF SHIPPING IN MEDITERRANEAN (BARBARY PIRATE PROBLEM) • BY 1797 – THREE 44-GUN FRIGATES: U.S.S. CONSTITUTION; U.S.S. CONSTELLATION; U.S.S. UNITED STATES, MORE PLANNED • MARINE CORPS – MARINES ON EVERY FRIGATE (BRITISH NAVY MODEL) • 1799 – CONGRESS APPROPRIATES $$$ FOR MORE FRIGATES

  39. U.S.S. CONSTELLATION

  40. THE BIRTH OF THE U.S. MARINE CORPS, 1798

  41. QUASI-WAR (UNDECLARED WAR) AGAINST FRANCE, 1797 – 1800 • = NAVAL WAR (MOSTLY IN WEST INDIES)

  42. WAR OVERVIEW: • BRITAIN HAD MOST OF FRENCH NAVY BOTTLED UP IN EUROPE – ALLOWED U.S. TO USE W. INDIES PORTS • INCONCLUSIVE : • FRENCH CAPTURED ONE U.S. FRIGATE (U.S.S. RETALIATION), U.S. CAPTURED ONE FRENCH FRIGATE • EACH CAPTURED MANY MERCHANTMEN • PROBABLY FRANCE CAPTURED MORE ≈ 2,000

  43. DOMESTICALLY – WAR = MAJOR POLITICAL ISSUE. • DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS OBJECT TO UNDECLARED WAR -- STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF ART. I OF CONSTITUTION: ONLY CONGRESS HAS THE POWER TO DECLARE WAR • FAVOR FRANCE OVER BRITAIN • COMPLAIN ADAMS IS MISMANAGING WAR • AND U.S. WASN’T “WINNING”  WAR UNPOPULAR = MORE SUPPORT FOR D-Rs 

  44. ADAMS AND FEDERALISTS IN CONGRESS USE “NATIONAL SECURITY” AS EXCUSE TO PASS ALIEN ACTS AND SEDITION ACT • DOES THIS SOUND FAMILIAR? • 9-11 ATTACK  HOMELAND SECURITY ACT AND P.A.T.R.I.O.T. ACT (+ WARRANTLESS WIRETAPS, “WITCHUNT” AGAINST MUSLIM AMERICANS, ETC.) • ALIEN ACTS (JUNE ‘78) – USED AGAINST FRENCH AMERICANS: • NATURALIZATION ACT (14 YEARS RESIDENCY REQ. TO BECOME CITIZEN) + • ALIEN ACT (PRESIDENT COULD IMPRISON/ EXPEL “ENEMY ALIENS”)

  45. SEDITION ACT(JULY ‘78) – USED AGAINST DEMOCRATIC –REPUBLICANS • MADE IT A CRIME (SEDITIOUS LIBEL) TO CRITICIZE THE GOVERNMENT OR FEDERAL OFFICERS – “"false, scandalous, and malicious” statements” • irony – remember the trial of john peter zenger! • LED TO TRIALS, FINES AND IMPRISONMENT OF DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS, INCLUDING MATTHEW LYON, MEMBER OF HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES FROM VERMONT ($1,000 + 4 MONTHS IN PRISON)

  46. CARTOON DEPICTING FISTFIGHT IN HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES BETWEEN Matthew (“the SpittinG”) Lyon(d-r) & Roger Griswold (f) • DEM-REPS ABLE TO MOBILIZE CONSIDERABLE OPPOSITION TO FEDERALISTS DUE TO A & S ACTS

  47. The Kentucky and Virginia ResolVES (jefferson/ madison, 1798 & 1799) – PHD 7-10 • BASED ON COMPACT THEORY - CONSTITUTION IS A COMPACT (CONTRACT) AMONG SOVEREIGN STATES • NULLIFICATION THEORY – EACH SOVEREIGN STATE HAS RIGHT TO NULLIFY FEDERAL LAWS STATE DEEMS UNCONSTITITUTIONAL)

  48. THE RESOLVES WERE A PLOY TO JUMP-START JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENTIAL 1800 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN – BUT PLAYING WITH FIRE: • COMPACT THEORY = IMPLICIT SECESSION THREAT – THEORETICAL BASIS FOR IT • RESOLVES PROVIDE BASIS FOR NULLIFICATION CRISIS OF 1832-33

  49. NEGATIVE CAMPAIGNING, 18TH-C. STYLE!BRANDING JEFFERSON AS A DANGEROUS RADICAL – “MAD TOM”Federalist cartoon depicts Thomas Jefferson an enemy of religion, lawful government, and the Constitution, who wanted to import French revolution/ reign of terror to America.