World War II. The War to End All Wars (Round 2). There are 2 main sites where fighting is happening in WWII. Europe Called the European Theater Asia Called the Pacific Theater. There are 2 main sides fighting in the war:. Axis Powers Germany, Italy, and Japan Allied Powers
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World War II The War to End All Wars (Round 2)
There are 2 main sites where fighting is happening in WWII • Europe • Called the European Theater • Asia • Called the Pacific Theater
There are 2 main sides fighting in the war: • Axis Powers • Germany, Italy, and Japan • Allied Powers • France, Britain, Soviet Union, US
Vocab Blitzkrieg: “Lightning War” tactic used by the Germans in WWII (fast and surprise air attacks). Luftwaffe: German Air force Vichy: city in Central France where a puppet government governed unoccupied France (the area not controlled by Germany). Puppet Government: a government in which a local leader is placed in charge, yet directed by an outside government.
Hitler and the Nazi’s have fully taken over Germany and have set their sights on the rest of Europe!
Nazis and Soviets at Peace???? • In August of 1939, Hitler and Stalin sign a public nonaggression pact promising not to attack one another. Secretly: • Poland is divided between the two. • Soviets get: • Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Finland • Germany gives USSR plans for naval vessels, subs, airplane engines • USSR will supply Germany with many raw goods
Poland • September 1st 1939- • Germany lead a surprise attack on Poland • They used Blitzkrieg (lightning war). • Using concentrated tanks and dive-bombers to break a hole in the enemy line and followed quickly mobile infantry. • Hitler used over 1.5 million men • Luftwaffe (German Air Force) bombed major cities, rail lines and communication lines
September 3 • France and Great Britain declare war on Germany • Since they aren't ready for war this period is known as the Phony War • Great Britain drops “Confetti” • millions of leaflets of propaganda over Germany • September 17th • Stalin orders Soviet troops to occupy the eastern half of Poland.
The Phony War • Seven months after France and Great Britain had declared war on Germany the two sides had not fought each other. • In WWI the defender had the advantage and many believed it would be the same in WWII. • The Allies had mobilized their armies. • The French waited for Germans behind the Maginot Line (a 87-mile long line of forts, concrete walls and underground barracks).
End of the Phony War • April 1940 • Germany attacks neutral Denmark and Norway • Denmark falls in hours, Norway will last months
Why did Hitler invade these areas? • To gain naval bases/airfields to attack UK in the future • May 1940 • Germans invade Holland, Belgium and Luxembourg
Surprise, Surprise… • Germans attack through Central France through the thick Ardennes Forest. • Experts believed that it was impossible to drive tanks through it. • British and French Armies are divided. • British are encircled at port of Dunkirk
Dunkirk • Allied soldiers escaped aboard anything that could float (yachts, lifeboats, motorboats, fishing ships). • 338,000 were rescued • All large equipment was left behind • France is alone against Germany Watch: http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/fall-of-france/video.html?bctid=73448415001&The-miracle-of-Dunkirk
France Falls • On June 10, Mussolini declares war on France fearing that Hitler would take the entire nation for himself. • June 14, Paris is captured by Germany • On June 22, France surrenders • Germany takes direct control of the northern two-thirds of France
Three Results of the Fall of France • Hitler creates a puppet gov. in France: -The Vichy French who controlled southern France. -“Free French” based in Britain. • Britain is the only nation still fighting Germany. • The Axis powers are masters of the European mainland
The Battle of Britain Answer these questions in your notes (page 6 in journal): When? What tactics are used by the Germans? What tactics are used by the British? Who wins?
The Battle of Britain After fall of France, Britain stands alone. Germany must control air in order to successfully invade England. Hitler launched air campaign in July 1940 Despite 3000 to 1200 advantage in aircraft, the Luftwaffe is unable to defeat the RAF.
Why did Germany lose? • Radar provides early warning/eliminate surprise. • Allows British to focus their fighter effort where the Germans pose the greatest threat.
Watch Battle of Britain video: • Scenes: http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/battle-of-britain/video.html?bctid=69750699001&The-Blitz • News about the Blitz: http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/battle-of-britain/video.html?bctid=68798765001&Blitzkrieg-1940 • News interview: http://www.history.co.uk/explore-history/ww2/battle-of-britain.html
Vocab Rosie the Riveter – symbol of women who built ships, planes, and produced ammunitions (weapons) on the home front. Stalingrad – “turning point” in European Theater of WWII. USSR defeated the Nazis.
On page 7 in your journal… Title: US involvement Write/answer these questions: What is the Lend Lease Act? What are the benefits? What are the side effects?
Early US Involvement in Europe • The US is supposed to be neutral • Lend-Lease Act: The US “Lends” UK (and eventually the Soviet Union) ships, planes, and other war material for “Leasing” British bases in the Caribbean.
Lend-Lease Why is this a good deal for the UK? Why is this a good deal for the US?
Side Effects of the Lend-Lease Act Hitler orders his U-Boats to target US ships By Sept. 4th Roosevelt orders US Navy to shoot German submarines on sight US is now in an undeclared war with Germany
Germany and the Soviet Union • Hitler signed Non-Aggression Pact • violates it when he launches Operation “Barbarossa” in June 22nd 1941.