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Food Defense. In a Beef Production Setting. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org. Is Our Food Safe From Attack?.

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Food Defense


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    1. Food Defense In a Beef Production Setting Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.

    2. Is Our Food Safe From Attack?

    3. The U.S. government has declared the food and agriculture sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.

    4. Will this Effect Missouri? • Missouri ranks 2nd in the nation for number of cattle operations. • Missouri ranks 3rd in the nation for number of beef cows. • Missouri farms have estimated cash receipts of $5.82 billion/year.

    5. How is Food Supply a Critical Infrastructure? • Most states produce 30% or less of what it’s residents eat. • Most cities have only a 5 day food supply. • The average person’s food travels 1,300 miles from farm to table.

    6. Case Study: Bitter Harvest • 1973 Fire retardant (PBB) accidentally mixed into feed rations for cattle. • Over a year later sickness in animals, and humans is linked to PBBs. • Cattle, pigs, sheep, chickens, and contaminated commodities are destroyed and buried. • 97% of humans living in Michigan during that time have PBBs in their system.

    7. What Type of Harm Could Occur? Intentional delivery of a harmful biological or chemical agent to the food supply system could cause: • Physical harm (illness or mortality) • Economic disruption • Direct • Indirect • International • Political unrest • Psychological harm – loss of confidence in food supply

    8. Case Study: Hopping Mad • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) • Britain-1980’s outbreak killed millions of cattle • Humans died of Creuztfeldt-Jakob disease • Disrupted trade • Caused shift of consumer preference

    9. -Cow/Calf Operation

    10. -Feedlot

    11. -Feed Mill

    12. -Supply Chain

    13. -Transportation

    14. - Sale Barn

    15. What is Food Defense? Food Defense focuses on security, protecting the food supply from intentional contamination. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.

    16. Is Food Defense Different than Biosecurity? • Food Defense focuses on protecting the food supply fromintentional contamination. • Biosecurity and Food Safety (HACCP) focus on protecting the food supply from unintentional contamination. They help with, but are not a substitute for food defense.

    17. Who Might Intentionally Contaminate an Animal Production Facility? • Disgruntled employee/former employee • Contract or temporary employee • Members of terrorist or extremist groups • Truck driver • Affiliate of a competing facility • Visitor to facility

    18. Biological Agents of Concernin a Beef Production Facility • Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)-viral • Rinderpest (RPV)-viral • Zoonotic Disease • Anthrax-bacterial • Brucellosis-Bang’s disease, bacterial • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)-Mad Cow Disease, prion Anthrax

    19. Radiological Agents Livestock can be exposed to radiation via inhalation, ingestion of contaminated feed, or direct exposure. • Polonium 210 • Plutonium • Uranium (U-235 or U-238) • Iodine 131 (I-131)

    20. Chemical Agents • Any Chemical not approved for use on the animals, or in their feed would be considered a contaminant. • Chemical agents used in acts of terrorism against livestock include: • Arsenic • Cyanide salt • Pesticides

    21. What Makes an Attractive Agent of Intentional Contamination? • Long incubation period/delayed effect • Highly effective • History of use • Available (easily produced in adequate quantity) • Low traceability

    22. What Do Consumers Think About Food Defense? Following several major food recalls in the US, consumer surveys were conducted. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.

    23. Consumer Confidence in Food Defense Systems After National Food Recalls Stinson et al., 2008

    24. Who Do Consumers Believe is Responsible for Food Defense? Stinson et al., 2008

    25. Who do Consumers Believe Should Pay for Food Defense? Stinson et al., 2008

    26. Products That Consumers Believe Most Likely to be Intentionally Contaminated Stinson et al., 2008

    27. Food Defense Plan Defense plans are encouraged but not required for farms and most food establishments. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8.  Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.

    28. Facilities Currently Required to Participate in Food Defense All vendors providing food for USDA feeding programs must now be in compliance with the Food Defense System.

    29. Four Steps for Developing a Food Defense Plan • Assess the vulnerabilities • Write a plan • Evaluatethe plan • Maintain the plan

    30. Assessthe vulnerabilities • Gather a team of key personnel to make the assessment. • Think like someone who wants to harm your operation. • Look for areas where contamination would be spread through normal operations. • Look for sensitive areas that are not frequently observed.

    31. Beef Farm Vulnerability Assessment

    32. Countermeasures Countermeasures are actions taken to shield vulnerable areas, reducing the risk of intentional contamination.

    33. Areas to Consider for Countermeasure Development • Procedures • Facility • Technology • Personnel

    34. Countermeasures for Procedures • Workforce • Shipping and Receiving • Visitors and Customers • Marketing

    35. Countermeasures for Facility • Light it • Lock it • Limit Access

    36. Writethe Plan • Develop a countermeasure to defend each vulnerable point identified as high risk. • Create a written plan including those countermeasures that are reasonable for the situation. • Identify the individual who will implement the countermeasure. • Set a timeline to implement the countermeasure.

    37. Beef Farm Food Defense Plan

    38. What if the Food Supply is Intentionally Contaminated? Should such an event occur a timely and efficient response will be critical to minimizing the damage.

    39. Develop a Written Response Plan • Plan for handling of contaminated animals • Emergency Planning • Facility Map • Emergency Contact Phone List • Visitor Log • Supplier/Customer Contacts • Employee Emergency Information

    40. Handling of Contaminated Animals • First hold all potentially contaminated animals • Potentially contaminated animals will need to be quarantined prior to euthanasia. • Quarantine will need to be separate from non contaminated animals. • Prepare a plan for carcass disposal, to be reviewed by APHIS and state authorities in case of an intentional contamination.

    41. Beef Farm Containment and Disposal Plan

    42. Facility Map • Name, address, and phone of owner/proprietor • Relationship of the facility to adjacent properties and/or structures. • Road access including transportation routes • Perimeter boundaries, include fences, and gates (with dimensions)

    43. Facility Map continued • Buildings, outbuildings, doors, windows, AC/heating, ventilation • Utilities (water, gas, electric, phones) location and shutoff • Septic System and drainage areas with direction of flow • Web sites such as Google Earth www.earth.google.com

    44. Happy Herefords Beef Farm pond Dandy Devons Organic Beef pondd Feed Storage Row Crop Farm House Barn/Equipment Shed Hay Shed Hwy AA Septic drainage Phone, deliveries, AC Owner: Murray Maine 4321 Hwy AA Bovine, MO 65444 Home: 660-445-xxxx Cell: 660-321-xxxx corral Electric and water shut offs Main gate 10’

    45. Beef Farm Emergency Phone List

    46. Beef Farm Supplier Contact List

    47. Beef Farm Customer Contact List

    48. Beef Farm Employee Emergency Contacts

    49. Evaluatethe plan • Check the perimeter regularly. • Make unannounced entrances at various times. • Check locks in vulnerable areas. • Perform a mock quarantine.

    50. Maintainthe plan • Ensure that measures implemented continue to be effective. • Train the family/employees regarding their effort in: • Prevention • Detection • Response • Re-evaluate the plan annually or as operations or facilities change.