Educational Research. Chapter 5. Hypothesis. The hypothesis states the expected answer to the research question – knowing that the investigation results will lead to its being supported or not supported – or retention or rejection Example:
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The hypothesis states the expected answer to the research question – knowing that the investigation results will lead to its being supported or not supported – or retention or rejection
Research Question: What is the effect of preschool training on the achievement of culturally disadvantaged children in the first grade
Hypothesis: Culturally disadvantaged children who have had preschool training achieve at a higher level in first grade than culturally disadvantaged children who have not had preschool training.
Not all studies have hypotheses:
Purpose of hypothesis:
Deriving a hypothesis:
Hypotheses derived inductively from observations of behavior
deductively from theory or from findings of previous research
(1) Inductive hypothesis – the researcher observes behavior, notices trends or probable relationships and then hypothesizes an explanation for this observed behavior.
Example: Children score higher on final measures of first-grade reading achievement when they are taught in small groups rather than large groups
(2) Deductive hypothesis – some hypotheses are derived by deduction from theory
(3) Theory – set of interrelated constructs and propositions that specify relations among variables to explain and predict phenomena.
From the theory you should be able to predict certain events that will or will not be observed. These deduced consequences become the hypotheses that are subjected to empirical investigation.
Can disprove a theory but cannot ever prove the theory true because theories are generalizations that apply to all possible instances of the phenomena and it is not possible to do this.
But the more support you have – the more confident the theory is valid
(a) directional – there is a positive relation between self-esteem and reading achievement or
(b) nondirectional – there is a relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement