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Health Psychology Class 3 Physiology, Part II. Power Point Slides http://nwkpsych.rutgers.edu/ ~kharber/healthpsychology. High Five the Body!.

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slide1

Health Psychology

Class 3

Physiology, Part II

slide2

Power Point Slides

http://nwkpsych.rutgers.edu/ ~kharber/healthpsychology

slide3

High Five the Body!

What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god!

Hamlet Act 2 Scene 2, Wllm. Shakespeare

slide4

Respiratory System: Functions

1

Take in Oxygen

2

Expel CO2

3

Regulate relative composition of blood

Medulla regulates resp. system, responsive to blood chemistry

slide5

Air

Nose & Mouth

pharynx & larynx

trachea

Primary bronchi

Lungs

secondary bronchi

bronchioles

alveolar ducts

alveoli

blood

Respiratory System

From Air to Blood

slide6

Respiratory Disorders

Asphyxia: Too little Oxy, too much CO2

Anoxia: Insufficient Oxy.

Hyperventilation: Too much Oxy

Hay fever: foreign bodies (dust, pollen)  histamines  inflammation of lung capillaries  fluids (mucus)  sneezing.

Asthma:triggers contraction of muscles around air tubes  clogging of air tubes  air intake. ALSO, inflammation  mucus

production  obstructs bronchioles  less Oxy and too much CO2.

slide7

Respiratory Disorders, cont.

Viral Infections: Common cold, influenza, bronchitis

Bacterial infections: Strep, whooping cough, diphtheria

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD):

Emphysema -- 4th deadliest disease

alveoli become inelastic—can’t exhale

Due mainly to smoking

Incurable

Chronic bronchitis

Pneumonia

Tuberculosis and Pleurisy

slide8

Failed Rx Compliance and

the Generation of “Super Bugs”

Poor compliance  production of hardier microbes  production more powerful drugs  poor compliance:

Poor compliance  hardier microbes, etc.

Health psych issues:

a. Doctor/patient communication

b. Obstacles to compliance

slide9

Digestive Tract

Mouth

(saliva  bolus)

Esophagus

(peristalsis)

Stomach

(pepsin, hydrochloric acid)

Duodenum

(carbs, proteins, fats)

Jejunum

Small intestine

Large intestine

Rectum

Anus

slide10

Digestive Tract, Cont.

Vagus Nerve: gastric juices, stomach

Pancreas: enzymes to duodenum; insulin

Liver: bile, stored in gall bladder

Parasymp. NS speeds up/slows down metabolism?

Symp. NS speeds up/slows down metabolism?

X

During stress, ___ Parasymp or ____ Symp is activated?

slide11

Disorders of the Digestive System

Intestines:

Stomach:

Gall Bladder:

Liver:

Gastroenteritis, diarrhea, dysentery

Peptic ulcer: Stress aggravates, doesn’t cause

Gall stones

Hepatitis

Hep. A: Water/food borne

Hep. B: Blood borne (needles, sex)

Hep. C (blood transfusions)

Hep. D, E

gut feelings in the desert antoine de saint exupery and the dragon fly
Gut Feelings in the Desert:Antoine De Saint Exupery and the Dragon Fly

I shaved carefully in a cracked mirror. From time to time I went to the door and looked at the naked sand. … I was thoughtful. … For the moment everything was all right. But I heard something sizzling. It was a dragonfly knocking against the lamp. Why it was I cannot say, but I felt a twinge in my heart.

I went outdoors and looked round. The air was pure. … Over the desert reigned a vast silence as of a house in order. But here were a green butterfly and two dragonflies knocking against my lamp. Again I felt a dull ache which might as easily have been joy as fear, but came up from the depths of me.

saint exupery in the desert continued
Saint Exupery in the Desert, continued

Something was calling to me from a great distance. Was it instinct?

Once again I went out. The wind had died down completely. The air was still cool. But I had received a warning. I guessed, I believed I could guess, what I was expecting.

I climbed a dune and sat down face to the east. If I was right, the thing would not be long in coming. What were they after here, those dragonflies, hundreds of miles from their oases inland?

saint exupery in the desert
Saint Exupery in the Desert

Wreckage thrown up upon the beach bears witness to a storm at sea. Even so did these insects declare to me that a sand storm was on the way, a storm out of the east that had blown them out of their oases.

Solemnly, for it was fraught with danger, the east wind rose. … But that was not what excited. What filled me with a barbaric joy was …that I had been able to read the anger of the desert in the beating wings of a dragonfly.

St. Exupery, A. (1939). Wind, sand, and stars.

slide15

Brain in Gut

(aka Neurogastroenterology)

  • More neurons than spinal cord
  • Fibers non-mylinated—like in big brain
  • Bathed in same neurochemicals as big brain
  • Suffers damage to big-brain diseases
  • 5. Responsive to psychotropic drugs
slide16

Are “Gut Feelings” Real?

  • Big brain and gut brain communicate
  • Stressful event #1: Big brain stores threat in “emotion memory”
  • Stressful event #2: Limbic system responds, sends signal to gut. Gut may get signal before cortex.
  • 4. Result—gut feeling
slide17

Renal System

Anatomy: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

Function: Rid body of waste fluids

Chemical balances in blood

Nephrons: Filters in kidneys

Disorders: Urinary tract infections

Nephritis: kidneys inflamed

Kidney failure: Deadly

slide18

Genetics, Health, and Psychology

Many serious illnesses are hereditary:

Cystic Fibrosis Lou Gehrig’s Disease (ALS)

Down Syndrome Tay-Sach’s Disease

Ethical Issues: Tell / Don’t tell person if they have gene.

Psychological contribution: Genetic counseling

* At-risk pregnancies

* Dramatic precautions (e.g., preventive hysterectomy)

slide19

Transmission of Disease

Direct transmission

Indirect transmission

Biological

Mechanical

slide20

Course of Infection

Incubation

Non-specific Symptoms

Acute Phase

Infection Types

Localized: Remain at site—don’t spread

Focal: Contracted at site but spreads

Systemic: Affects multiple areas at once

slide21

Immunity

Defined: Body’s defenses against invading organisms.

Natural Immunity: Breast feeding, disease encounters

Artificial Immunity: vaccinations, inoculations

Non-specific immunity

1. Anatomical barriers

2. Phagocytosis

3. Anti-microbial substances (interferon, e.g.)

4. Inflammatory responses (histamines)

Specific immunity

1. Dedicated to fighting specific microorganisms

2. Acquired via previous infection

3. Mechanism: antigen/anti-body reaction

slide23

Diseases of the Immune System

AIDS: Retards T-cell production

Cancer: Uncontrolled cell growth.

Autoimmune diseases: immune system attacks healthy tissue.

a. Triggered by bacterial infection

b. Aggravated by stress

c. Examples: MS, Lupus

slide24

Immunity

Defined: Body’s defenses against invading organisms.

Natural Immunity: Breast feeding, disease encounters

Artificial Immunity: vaccinations, inoculations

Non-specific immunity

1. Anatomical barriers

2. Phagocytosis

3. Anti-microbial substances (interferon, e.g.)

4. Inflammatory responses (histamines)

Specific immunity

1. Dedicated to fighting specific microorganisms

2. Acquired via previous infection

3. Mechanism: antigen/anti-body reaction

slide25

Immunologic Defense

Non-Specific

Anatomical Barriers (skin, mucous membranes)

Mechanical (coughing, sneezing)

Phagocytosis

Antimicrobial

Inflamatory Response

Specific

Humoral: B Cells (memory, mature) -> antibodies (faster)

Cell-Mediated:

Macrophage -> TH --> Tc, B, NK->TH -> Stops reaction (slower)

White blood cell (macrophage) attacking anthrax bacilli (in orange)

slide26

Diseases of the Immune System

AIDS: Retards T-cell production

Cancer: Uncontrolled cell growth.

Autoimmune diseases: immune system attacks healthy tissue.

a. Triggered by bacterial infection, mimics legit. substances

b. Aggravated by stress

c. Examples: MS, Lupus, arthritis