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LIMITING WORKER STYRENE EXPOSURE. Combustible Dust. Composites Manufacturing Issues. Bob Lacovara, CCM, CCT-I Convergent Composites. Styrene Exposure Reduction. Elements of. Exposure Control. Molding Process. PPE. Engineering Controls. Materials Selection.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

LIMITING WORKER

STYRENE EXPOSURE

Combustible Dust

Composites Manufacturing Issues

Bob Lacovara, CCM, CCT-I

Convergent Composites

slide2

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Elements of

Exposure Control

Molding

Process

PPE

Engineering

Controls

Materials

Selection

slide3

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Materials Technology

Polyester Resin

EPOXY RESIN

slide4

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Materials Technology

  • Styrene Suppressants
slide5

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Materials Technology

  • Styrene Suppressants
  • Low Styrene Resins

LS

Polyester

Resin

slide6

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Materials Technology

  • Styrene Suppressants
  • Low Styrene Resins
  • Alternative Monomers
slide7

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Materials Technology

  • Styrene Suppressants
  • Low Styrene Resins
  • Alternative Monomers
  • Epoxy Resins

EPOXY RESIN

slide8

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Materials Technology

  • Styrene Suppressants
  • Low Styrene Resins
  • Alternative Monomers
  • Epoxy Resins
  • Thermoplastics
slide9

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Emissions Limiting Processes

slide10

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Process Technology

  • Non-Spray Application
slide11

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Process Technology

  • Non-Spray Application
  • Vacuum Infusion
slide12

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Process Technology

  • Non-Spray Application
  • Vacuum Infusion
  • RTM Processing
slide13

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Process Technology

  • Non-Spray Application
  • Vacuum Infusion
  • RTM Processing
  • Pre-Preg Processing
slide14

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Process Technology

  • Non-Spray Application
  • Vacuum Infusion
  • RTM Processing
  • Pre-Preg Processing
  • Polyester Pre-Preg
slide15

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Process Technology

  • Non-Spray Application
  • Vacuum Infusion
  • RTM Processing
  • Pre-Preg Processing
  • Polyester Pre-Preg
  • Robotic Application
slide16

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Control Technology

slide17

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Control Technology

  • Best Practice Ventilation
slide18

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Control Technology

  • With general ventilation (aka, dilution ventilation)
  • it will be difficult to produce a 20 ppm environment
  • Enhanced ventilation will be required in most cases
  • to technically and cost effectively address 20 ppm
slide19

Styrene Exposure Reduction

General Ventilation

Dilution ventilation moves the entire

volume of air within a work space

slide20

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Enhanced Ventilation

Designed to move air specifically from

breathing and emissions producing zones

slide21

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Control Technology

  • Enhanced Ventilation Example

Filament Winding Application

slide22

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Control Technology

  • Enhanced Ventilation Example

Open Molding Application

slide23

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Control Technology

  • Enhanced Ventilation Example

Hull Molding Application

slide24

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Work Practice Control

C1T1 + C2T2 + C3T3

Exposure =

8 Hrs

slide25

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Work Practice Control

  • Clean Operations Training
slide26

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Work Practice Control

  • Clean Operations Training
  • Operator Positioning
slide27

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Operator Positioning

Air Flow

Operator

Positioned

Upwind

Spray Booth

slide28

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Administrative Control

  • Work Habit Training
  • Operator Positioning
  • Time Limited Exposure
slide29

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Administrative Control

TWA Calculation

C1T1 + C2T2 + C3T3

Exposure =

8 Hrs

Exposure = Time Weighted Avg (TWA)

C = Concentration (ppm)

T = Time (hours)

slide30

Styrene Exposure Reduction

  • Measured Exposure:
  • 2-hours @ 70 ppm
  • 2-hours @ 50 ppm
  • 4-hours @ 40 ppm

TWA Calculation

(50 ppm TWA)

(70 x 2) + (50 x 2) + (40 x 4)

400

=

=

50 ppm TWA

8

8 Hrs

slide31

Styrene Exposure Reduction

  • Measured Exposure:
  • 2-hours @ 50 ppm
  • 2-hours @ 30 ppm
  • 4-hours @ 0 ppm

TWA Calculation

(20 ppm TWA)

(50 x 2) + (30 x 2) + (0 x 4)

160

=

=

20 ppm TWA

8

8 Hrs

slide32

Styrene Exposure Reduction

TWA Calculation

Proposed 20 ppm TWA

looks like this:

Current 50 ppm TWA

looks like this:

  • Measured Exposure:
  • 2-hours @ 70 ppm
  • 2-hours @ 50 ppm
  • 4-hours @ 40 ppm
  • 400 ppm units/day
  • Measured Exposure:
  • 2-hours @ 50 ppm
  • 2-hours @ 30 ppm
  • 4-hours @ 0 ppm
  • 160 ppm units/day
slide33

Styrene Exposure Reduction

Time Limited Exposure

Scenario: Four Workers - Three Different Jobs

slide34

Styrene Exposure Reduction

The Reality of Crew Rotation

4-Workers / 3-Jobs - Spraying - Laminating - Finishing

50 ppm - 2 hrs / 30 ppm - 2 hrs / 0 ppm - 4 hrs

2Hr. Cycle

1

2Hr. Cycle

2

2Hr. Cycle

3

2 Hr. Cycle

4

  • Worker A - Spray
  • Worker B - Roll Out
  • Worker C - Finish
  • Worker D - Finish
  • Worker B - Spray
  • Worker A - Roll Out
  • Worker C - Finish
  • Worker D - Finish
  • Worker C - Spray
  • Worker D - Roll Out
  • Worker A - Finish
  • Worker B - Finish
  • Worker D - Spray
  • Worker C - Roll Out
  • Worker A - Finish
  • Worker B - Finish
slide35

Styrene Exposure Reduction

SUMMARY:

An exposure limit of

20 ppm TWA will

require a combination

of technologies &

work practices

  • Low emissions materials
  • Emissions limiting processes
  • Enhanced ventilation
  • Enhanced work practices
slide36

LIMITING WORKER

STYRENE EXPOSURE

Combustible Dust

Composites Manufacturing Issues

Contact:

Bob Lacovara, CCM, CCT-I

Convergent Composites

blacovara@aol.com

www.convergentcomposites.com