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Quest :. Social Problems. Lecture 7: June 23. Announcements. Plan your time: Study for Test 3: 12pm June 26 (Thursday) Write Essay 3: 12pm June 26 (Thursday) Write Project Report: 12pm June 26 (Thursday) Final topics: immigration, environment, and war

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social problems


Social Problems

Lecture 7: June 23

  • Plan your time:
    • Study for Test 3: 12pm June 26 (Thursday)
    • Write Essay 3: 12pm June 26 (Thursday)
    • Write Project Report: 12pm June 26 (Thursday)
  • Final topics: immigration, environment, and war
  • Today: Myths, realities, and problems of U.S. immigration
essay 3 prompt
Essay 3 prompt
  • I keep best 2 out of 3 essay scores, so you may be able to skip this one.
  • Format: one page, double-spaced, 1” margins, normal font, no title (just name), hard copy at beginning of class Thursday.
  • Content:
    • Pick two of this week’s major topics (immigration, environmental problems, war/terrorism).
    • Pick a more specific issue within each topic.
    • Discuss the way(s) these two specific problems are related…such as:
      • Does one cause the other?
      • Do they both cause each other?
      • Do they share one common cause?
      • Could they be fixed by one common solution?
study guide
Study guide
  • Vocab
    • Migration vs. immigration vs. emigration
    • Amnesty
    • Assimilation
    • Ethnic enclave
  • Concepts
    • Push vs. pull factors for migration
    • Relationship between immigration & unemployment
    • Myths: border security, culture threat, abuse services, steal jobs, intent to stay
    • Soc. Probs. Views of blame & solution
migration types
Migration types
  • Migration: the movement of people from one geographic region or country to another
    • Immigration: the movement of people into a region or country
    • Emigration: the movement of people out of a region or country
  • Usually voluntary, may be forced (for example: African slave trade).
    • Difference isn’t always clear…
migration types1
Migration types
  • Always difficult:
    • Leaving familiar culture, family, friends.
    • Surviving passage.
    • Adapting to new (often antagonistic) culture
immigration a social problem
Immigration: a social problem?
  • Immigration crisis in America
  • Some 12 million undocumented migrants in the U.S. right now.
  • Stable levels/slight rise over past decade.
  • As of 2012 policy, hundreds of thousands of child migrants from Central- & South America.
  • What’s the problem? Migrants or policy?
    • Debate often sheds more heat than light…
myth migration can be stopped
Myth: migration can be stopped

  • Migration has occurred throughout human history.
    • Especially between neighboring lands.

Why did ancient peoples migrate?

Why do people migrate today?

myth migration can be stopped2
Myth: migration can be stopped
  • General trends:
  • Migration is never random. Most often a matter of survival.
  • Common push factors: overpopulation, bad economy, religious/political persecution
  • Common pull factors: good economy, convenience, historical links (colonization, recruitment, war…)
myth migration can be stopped3
Myth: migration can be stopped
  • Along the U.S.-Mexico border, there are 355 miles of fencing, including eight miles of chain link, 200 miles of mesh/post, 72 miles of (old) mat, and 75 miles of steel beams. The total length of the U.S.-Mexico border is about 1,900 miles.
myth migration can be stopped4
Myth: migration can be stopped
  • And, John Ladd, whose family owns a large ranch west of Naco, sees groups of two to six people crossing on almost a daily basis, with more activity at night. At times, entire vehicles even manage to get through. The border fence along his property is 10 feet tall or 13 feet tall, depending on the location, but it is made of a much lower quality metal mesh material.He has observed evidence of a total of 15 incidents in which smugglers used gas-powered chop saws to cut openings in the fencing, and then drove a total of 31 trucks (presumably loaded with drugs) across the border on his property between February of 2012 and May of this year.
myth migration can be stopped5
Myth: migration can be stopped
  • Main reasons for migration?
  • Patterns in migration flows?
  • Why “migration” and not “immigration”? Clip 1Clip 2Clip 3
myth migration can be stopped6
Myth: migration can be stopped
  • People forget—or rewrite—their own immigrant history…
  • Even in the U.S., a “nation of immigrants.”
  • Is there really a difference between historical- and modern-day migration?
myth migrants culture threat1
Myth: migrants = culture threat
  • Immigration opponents have always claimed that immigrants are unwilling or unable to assimilate to American culture.
  • Sometimes this story becomes one of invasion and cultural imperialism.
    • Old fear: re-colonization
    • New fear: Reconquista
myth migrants culture threat2
Myth: migrants = culture threat
  • Often expressed as language fears…
  • California Prop 227
  • AZ: “English for Children”
myth migrants culture threat3
Myth: migrants = culture threat
  • Similar findings across other indicators of cultural assimilation…
    • Sexuality
    • Birth rate
    • White friends
    • Residential integration
myth immigrants cost us money
Myth: immigrants cost us money
  • “Illegal immigrants don’t pay taxes, but they use our social services.”
  • Reality:
    • Undocumented immigrants generate more tax revenue than they cost (avg. $80k more than services per lifetime).
    • They also use less health care services (emergency room, Medicare, Medicaid…)
    • And less welfare programs (food stamps…)
  • Educating immigrant children is costly, but…

generally benefits economy & workforce in the long-run.

myth immigrants cost us jobs
Myth: immigrants cost us jobs
  • “Immigrants steal our jobs and drive down wages.”
  • Reality:
    • Immigrants tend to complement native-born workforce, not compete with it. (Ex. Gold Rush Chinese, Mexican braceros)
    • Immigration is correlated with higher wages among native-born workers.
    • Immigration is correlated with higher employment rates for native-born.
    • Immigrants help replace an otherwise-shrinking population.
myth immigrants cost us jobs2
Myth: immigrants cost us jobs
  • States lose millions due to…?
    • Enforcement costs
    • Loss of tourism
    • Loss of workforce
    • Discouraging business
myth immigrants cost us jobs3
Myth: immigrants cost us jobs
  • Immigration tends to slow down during a bad economy, then pick up during periods of growth.
myth permanent settlement
Myth: permanent settlement
  • It’s assumed that immigrants want to settle in the U.S. permanently…
  • Reality: many migrants, especially Mexicans, only stay temporarily:
    • Limited number of years
    • Seasonal migration
    • Periodic migration
  • Often families will save up enough money to send one member to the U.S. to work and send remittances back home.
myth permanent settlement1
Myth: permanent settlement
  • *Exception: two U.S. federal policies have actually encouraged Mexican migrants (who would have been temporary) to stay permanently:
    • IRCA
    • Increased border security
  • In other words…
    • Attempts to stop migration actually increase immigrant presence.

So fewer departures & returns to Mexico, but greater migrant presence in the U.S.

Evidence of shift from temporary to permanent migration?

what s the problem
What’s the problem?
  • MYTHS:
    • Migration can be stopped.
    • Immigrants threaten American culture.
    • Immigrants hurt the U.S. economy.
    • Immigrants want to settle here permanently.
    • Borders cannot be policed.
    • Most immigrants acculturate rapidly.
    • Immigrants help the U.S. economy.
    • Many immigrants are only temporary.
policing the real problem
Policing: the real problem?
  • Human costs:
    • Exploitation of immigrants
    • Discrimination & racism
policing the real problem1
Policing: the real problem?
  • Human costs:
    • Risks of crossing
    • “Coyotes”
policing the real problem2
Policing: the real problem?
  • Financial costs:
    • Patrolling: $18 billion (in 2010)
    • Fencing: $2.4 billion (for 670 mi)
policing the real problem3
Policing: the real problem?
  • Financial costs:
    • Lost economic productivity
      • Workers
      • Students
social problem immigration policy
Social problem: immigration policy
  • 1882-1965: Various laws = Exclusion
    • Social pathology
  • 1986: IRCA = Amnesty & Assimilation
    • Social disorganization
  • 2000s: Border control = Exclusion
    • Social pathology
  • Which views on social problems do these policies reflect?
social problem immigration policy1
Social problem: immigration policy
  • Maybe it’s time for a social structure view?
    • Immigrants aren’t bad people.
    • Immigrants aren’t ignorant.
    • The problem is our system not making the best use of migrant flows.
  • What do you think? Any suggestions for social change?