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10.3 A Clash of Values. I. Nativism Resurges. The Sacco-Vanzetti case reflected the prejudices & fears of the era They were Italian immigrants & anarchists accused of murder Even though there was little evidence, Judge Thayer & the jury were biased. Vanzetti and Sacco.

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i nativism resurges
I. Nativism Resurges
  • The Sacco-Vanzetti case reflected the prejudices & fears of the era
    • They were Italian immigrants & anarchists accused of murder
    • Even though there was little evidence, Judge Thayer & the jury were biased

Vanzetti and Sacco

“In all my life I have never stole, never killed, never spilled blood…. We were tried during a time …when there was a hysteria of resentment and hate against the people of our principles, against the foreigner…. I am suffering because I am indeed a radical; I have suffered because I was an Italian and indeed I am an Italian…. If you could execute me two times, and if I could be reborn two other times, I would live again to do what I have done already.” -B. Vanzetti

i nativism resurges1
I. Nativism Resurges…

3. Found guilty & executed (1927) amid protest & controversy

i nativism resurges2
I. Nativism Resurges…
  • Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1920s
    • Targeted African Americans, non-Protestants, & many new immigrants

“We believe that the pioneers who built America bequeathed to their own children a priority right to it, the control of it and of its future, and that no one on earth can claim any part of this inheritance except through our generosity…. We hold firmly that America belongs to Americans and should be kept American.”

- Imperial Wizard Hiram Evans

The KKK held numerous marches in Washington D.C., including this one in 1925, where over 60,000 marched down Pennsylvania Avenue.

i nativism resurges3
I. Nativism Resurges…

2. Scandals & power struggles between leaders led to its rapid decline in the late 1920s

Year Membership


1925 6,000,000


David Stephenson, leader of Indiana’s KKK, was convicted & jailed for murder.

i nativism resurges4
I. Nativism Resurges…
  • Immigration policies changed in the 1920s in response to nativist pleas to “Keep America American”
    • National Origins Act (1924) restricted immigration to the U.S.
      • Quota was 2% of the # of people from their country who lived in the U.S. according to the 1890 census
      • Favored N. & W. Europeans
      • Excluded East Asians
      • Exempted those from the

Western Hemisphere

i nativism resurges5
I. Nativism Resurges…

D. Large number of Mexican immigrants came here as the demand for cheap farm labor increased

More than 890,000 legal Mexican immigrants came to the U.S. between 1910-1920 to escape revolution, social chaos, & economic catastrophe. The numbers continued to rise during the 1920s.

all of the following are true about the sacco vanzetti case except
All of the following are TRUE about the Sacco-Vanzetti Case EXCEPT…
  • They were supported by the public throughout the trial
  • They were found guilty & executed
  • The judge & jury were biased against them
  • They were feared because they were Italian immigrants & radicals who believed in anarchy
the kkk of the 1920s targeted
The KKK of the 1920s targeted…

1. African Americans

  • non-Protestants
  • New immigrants
  • All of the above
the national origins act
The National Origins Act…
  • Increased immigration in the 1920s
  • Excluded Eastern Europeans
  • Favored Northern & Western Europeans
  • Reduced the number of Mexican immigrants to the U.S.
all of the following is true about life in the u s in the 1920s except
All of the following is TRUE about life in the U.S. in the 1920s EXCEPT…
  • People wanted to “keep America American”
  • Southern & Eastern Europeans were viewed as “unfit” for our society
  • Nativists encouraged ethnic diversity
  • Laws were passed to reduce the number of immigrants coming to the country
ii a clash of cultures
II. A Clash of Cultures
  • Women sought to break free from their traditional roles & behaviors
    • More women entered the workforce
    • More women entered college
    • Some women became “flappers”


Legislators from several states introduced bills to reform feminine dress. In Ohio…

-shirts & evening gowns couldn’t display more than 2 inches of the throat

-wanted to prevent the sale of any garment which accentuates the lines of the female figure

-females over 14 couldn’t wear a skirt that doesn’t reach to the part of the foot known as the instep

ii a clash of cultures1
II. A Clash of Cultures…

B. Science & religious fundamentalists clashed in the Scopes Trial (1925)

  • Fundamentalists believe in the literal truth in the Bible
  • John Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution in Tennessee
  • Found guilty

In his biology class, Scopes read a passage from Civic Biology stating: “We have now learned that animal forms may be arranged so as to begin with the simple one-celled forms and culminate with a group which includes man himself.”

ii a clash of cultures2
II. A Clash of Cultures…

C. Prohibition, the movement to ban alcohol, gained many supporters in the early 1900s

ii a clash of cultures3
II. A Clash of Cultures…
  • 18th Amendment (1919) prohibited the manufacture, sale, & transportation of alcoholic beverages

Amendment XVIII

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

Section 2. The congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

ii a clash of cultures4
II. A Clash of Cultures…

2. Congress passed the Volstead Act to enforce Prohibition

Federal agents had over 2000 square miles to patrol and received little money for doing so. Many accepted bribes and “looked the other way.”

ii a clash of cultures5
II. A Clash of Cultures…

3. People went to speakeasies to obtain illegal liquor

4. Organized crime grew as bootleggers earned huge profits making & selling alcohol

Al Capone was a famous Italian American gangster during the Prohibition era who had a leading role in illegal activities in Chicago. He was eventually charged with tax evasion and sent to prison.

George Remus was known as the “King of the Bootleggers” for illegally selling whisky. He made $40 million in 3 years.

ii a clash of cultures6
II. A Clash of Cultures…

5. Prohibition was repealed with the 21st Amendment (1933)

Deaths due to alcohol, Cook County, Illinois 1910-1926

Source: US Senate Judiciary committee Hearings on national prohibition, 1926