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And now, More Grammar. Kin 100W Emily H. Wughalter, Ed.D . Parallel Structure. With an -ing Ending. Kinesiology majors like to swim, bike, and run. Running, biking, and swimming are the three components of the triathlon. Do not mix: Kinesiology majors like swimming, running, and to bike.

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and now more grammar

And now, More Grammar

Kin 100W

Emily H. Wughalter, Ed.D.

with an ing ending
With an -ing Ending
  • Kinesiology majors like to swim, bike, and run.
  • Running, biking, and swimming are the three components of the triathlon.
  • Do not mix: Kinesiology majors like swimming, running, and to bike.
pick out the problems in the following sentences
Pick out the problems in the following sentences
  • The teacher said that he was a poor student because he waited until the last minute to study for the exam, complete his lab problems in a careless manner, and his motivation was low.
  • The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not each too much, and to do some warm up exercises before the game.
The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings, pronunciations, correct spellings, and looking up irregular verbs.
  • The nutritional aspects of women athletes are relatively similar to a man’s but have several varied characteristics.
  • This loss leads to difficulty with weight-bearing tasks, increases risk of fall and fracture, increases fatigue time, and exercise difficulty.

Sixteen male pubescent soccer players, 13 years of age, 58.7 cm, and physically participated in soccer for about 4.5 years were included in this study.

  • This can lead to eating disorders to lose weight, overworking of the muscles also knows, or beginning touse steroids to increase muscle mass.
  • There are various explanations as to why catastrophic head injuries occur in high school, such as, their brain is not fully developed so the injury threshold is lower, the skill is thinner providing less protection to the brain, less medical coverage at high school games, and/or younger players have not fully developed proper strategies to avoid brain injury.
Faulty Parallelism

Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, whilenow the laboratory method is employed.

Corrected Version

Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.

The French, the Italians, Spanish, and Portuguese

The French, the Italians, the Spanish, and the Portuguese

correct these statements for parallel structure and or agreement
Correct These Statements for Parallel Structure and/or Agreement
  • She likes to listen to music and dancing to the tunes.
  • Every one of his colleagues swear he’s the best qualified for the job.
  • The album containing the old man’s will and childhood photographs were found hidden beneath a trapdoor in the closet.

When young children lose a parent, their grief and loneliness often leads them to become withdrawn.

  • Neither Mr. Forbes nor Miss Johnson were in the classroom when the fire broke out.
  • The team was given a standing ovation after it won the game.

The number of problems that turned up was disheartening.

  • There was complaints; here’s two of them.
  • Both Bob and Carol feels that Ted and Alice are too old to trick or treat.

The sociologist believes that commercials usually exaggerate the happiness that comes with buying products and leads us to develop unrealistic expectations.


Masculine Pronoun

    • Everybody in the country is naturally concerned for his welfare.
  • Plural agreement following two or more antecedents joined by an “and”.
    • He and she ate their dinner quickly.
    • Singular agreement following two or more singular antecedents joined by “or” or “nor”
      • Either Jack or Paul is bound to forget his appointment.

Singular agreement after collective nouns the sense of which is singular.

    • The class elected its officers at the end of the term.
  • An impossible situation: singular and plural antecedents joined by “or” or “nor”
    • Either the boy or his parents have lost his (or their) mind.
      • Change to:
        • Either the boy has lost his mind or his parents are out of their wits.

Avoid ambiguous reference. Be sure that a pronoun cannot be taken to refer to more than one possible antecedent.

    • My mother told the female secretary that she had made a mistake.
      • Try: My mother reprimanded the secretary for making a mistake.
  • Avoid remote reference. Be sure that a pronoun has a definite antecedent instead of a vague idea.
    • He played golf all morning and tennis all afternoon which was probably bad for his health.
      • Try: He played golf all morning and tennis all afternoon. So much exertion was bad for his health.

Avoid reference to a noun in the possessive case.

    • Jimmy Connors made history with accomplishments in the 1991 US Tennis Open. He was cheered on by many tennis fans in America.
      • Try: Jimmy Connors made history with accomplishments in the 1991 US Tennis Open. Connors was cheered on by many fans in America.
complete sentences
Complete Sentences
  • Contain a noun and a verb and express a complete thought
  • Simple, Compound and Complex
basic sentence structure
Basic Sentence Structure
  • Part of the sentence that names is the subject
  • Part of the sentence that makes a statement about the subject is the predicate
  • Verb and all of its modifiers
simple sentences
Simple Sentences
  • Contain a single, simple thought
      • I enjoy teaching 100W.
      • I learn more about writing.
      • I enjoy getting to know the Kinesiology students.


      • I enjoy teaching 100W because I learn more about writing and I get to know our students better.
simple sentences can be modified
Simple Sentences Can Be Modified
  • To write an engineering book requires knowledge of the field.
  • To write a complete book of aerospace engineering requires a thorough knowledge of the engineering field.
compound sentences
Compound Sentences
  • Two or more main clauses
    • A clause is a group of words with a subject and a predicate held together in grammatical union.
complex sentences
Complex sentences
  • Contain two independent clauses or an independent and dependent clause
    • Dependent because the clause cannot stand alone as a complete sentence
    • Independent because the clause can stand alone as a complete sentence
compound sentences with two independent main clauses
Compound Sentences with Two Independent Main Clauses
  • Today I have a busy day; I have to teach three classes and run two meetings.
The ACSM recommends a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 5 days per week of exercise; ACSM also made recommendations for intensity and duration.
complex sentences with an independent and a dependent clause
Complex Sentences with an Independent and a Dependent Clause
  • I’d like to do a lot of traveling when I’m rich and famous.
  • The Martin Luther King Jr. Library won the Library of the Year award for its concept and innovation.
  • Today the Martin Luther King Jr. library will be highlighted at a press conference including dignitaries such as: President Kassing, Dean Keifer, and Mayor Reed.
  • Today the MLK library will be highlighted at a press conference including dignitaries from campus and community such as: SJSU Pres Kassing, Provost Sigler, and Dean Keifer; Mayor Reed and City Councilperson Wughalter.
coordinating conjunctions fanboys
Coordinating Conjunctions (FANBOYS)
  • Coordinating conjunctions connect two correlated and complete sentences
  • Place a comma before the coordinating conjunction
The bank was crowded, so I decided to go there at another time.
  • I am a member of our professional organization and serve on its Board of Governors, for I believe scholars should be active in their fields.
I am a professor of Kinesiology, and I became undergraduate coordinator in the fall 2009.
  • I love my dogs and cats, but I am mindful when children are present.
  • Physical activity affects the onset of diabetes, but researchers must be cognizant of the diabetes type (Type I or Type II).
conjunctive adverbs
Conjunctive Adverbs
  • Conjunctive adverbs refer to subject matter of the preceding sentence, including:
    • Accordingly
    • Also
    • Consequently
    • However
    • Nevertheless
    • Therefore
    • Then
    • Moreover
    • Furthermore

Use a semicolon with conjunctive adverbs

I am the teacher; therefore you should listen to me.
  • In the Surgeon General’s Report, he supported the role of physical activity in our lives; however, the impact on the people of the United States has been minimal.
Physical activity is important for the health and economic outlook for United States; furthermore we need to consider the intake of calories when determining health risk.