Why is it important to know common oxidation states? • What happens when iron rusts? • List some ideas using your monatomic list.
Iron Rusting Fe2+ and Fe3+ is exposed to oxygen and forms Fe2O3 with water attached. A pit is formed in the Fe. Water enters the pit. Fe is oxidation state 0 Fe2+ is oxidation state of 2+ Picture from: http://library.kcc.hawaii.edu/external/chemistry/everyday_corrosion.html
Memorizing Monatomic Ions • Recall the number in a series that you are able to remember in short term memory from the sequencing lab. • Use this number and chunking when you study the monatomic ions to memorize these ions. • This presentation will give you large chunks, but you may have to break them down into smaller chunks for your span.
Hopefully, your brain is a little larger than this one. His sequence recall is less than one. Picture from: http://www.simpsonstrivia.com.ar/simpsons-photos/wallpapers/homer-simpson-wallpaper-brain-1024.jpg
Some of the columns of the periodic table have a pattern for the monatomic fixed ions
Column 1FixedColumn 1 loses an electron to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18.
Column 2Fixed Column 1 loses two electrons to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18.
Column 11 Silver Ag FixedColumn 11 loses two electrons to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18 for the outer shell.
Column 12 FixedColumn 12 loses two electrons to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18 for the outer shell.
Column 13 Fixed Column 13 loses three electrons. Only aluminum is fixed in this column
Column 15Column 15 gains three electrons to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18
Column 16Column 15 gains four electrons to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18
Column 17Column 17 gains one electron to obtain the noble gas configuration of column 18
Variable Monatomic Ions • The transition monatomic ions have many different oxidation charges (charge of the ion) • Many variable monatomic ions have common names as well as the stock system name. • Learning the ions is difficult. Using your chunking skills makes it much easier to memorize. • There are many variable ion in the transition metals. • The ions that are presented are only the common variable ions with common names.
The Stock system name uses Roman numerals for the charge of the ion. • Copper (I) • Cu1+ • Tin (IV) • Sn4+
Common Naming System • According to IUPAC naming compounds with common names is typically used when the ion does not have more than two oxidation states.
Some words to remember for common naming • -ous is less • The charge of the ion is the lower oxidation number • Example Ferrous is Fe2+ • -ic is more • The charge of the ion is the higher oxidation number • Example Ferric is Fe3+
Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni For common naming2+ -ous is less, 3+ -ic is more Pattern on the periodic chart
Cu, Ag, and Au are all 1+Cu is 1+ and 2+Au is 1+ and 3+ (The 3rd row down)-ous is less, -ic is more
Zn, Cd, and HgAll are 2+Hg22+ is diatomic Stock system name Mercury (I)-ous is less, -ic is more