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Composing of current document is supported by EU LIFE programme (EAGLELIFE project). ATTITUDE OF ESTONIAN POPULATION TO THE RESTRICTIONS RELATED TO THE BIRD PROTECTION 2008. Hella Kaldaru. RESEARCH METHOD.

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attitude of estonian population to the restrictions related to the bird protection 2008

Composing of current document is supported by EU LIFE programme (EAGLELIFE project)

ATTITUDE OF ESTONIAN POPULATION TO THE RESTRICTIONS RELATED TO THE BIRD PROTECTION 2008

Hella Kaldaru

Kotkaklubi 1

research method
RESEARCH METHOD
  • This report bases on the survey about the endangered bird species that was carried out among the population by Omnibus 11/2008
  • 15-74 yrs. aged Estonian population was the sample of the survey
  • The sample size was 1000 respondents
  • The results of the survey represent the opinions and behaviour of the whole population of this age
  • The multistage random sample was the basis of the selection of the respondents
  • The determined start address in a sample point and the rule of the youngest man at home were used for the respondents` selection
  • The interviews were conducted in the households, one per a household
  • The data have been weighted according to the official statistics of age and gender
  • The allowed statistical error on the 95% reliability level is ±3,1%
  • The fieldwork of the research took place in 2008, November 6-19
  • The same questionnaire was used in 2004

Kotkaklubi 2

summary
SUMMARY
  • In general, the results of the surveys conducted in 2008 and 2004 differ little, although there is some notable progress in people’s awareness of endangered birds. The most positive changes have taken place in the understanding of those residents who have had contact with endangered birds and to whom the main focus of the current informing work has been directed.
  • As compared to the earlier results, the role of eagles in Estonian nature and their endangered situation are now somewhat more recognized. They are seen as a threat to our fish and game resources less often than before.
  • Among the respondents in whose home surroundings there are birds nesting, the attitude towards creating a protected area for eagles or black storks on their lands has become somewhat more concrete – there are slightly more of those who would consent to that than before, but also those who are opposed. There are, nevertheless, very few direct opponents (8%).
  • The main reasons why people do not want a protected area on their lands are the restrictions in economic activities.
  • People, in whose home surroundings the named birds nest, expressed a keener interest in their lifestyles and wellbeing than before and would be more actively ready to do something for the benefit of the birds.
  • The most important sources of information regarding the birds are still radio and television, but the role of the Internet has also become noticeably more important. Personal contacts, school, and thematic events have become more relevant than before.
  • Nevertheless, 80% of the respondents admitted that they are insufficiently informed, of whom over half do not even want to learn anything more on that issue.
  • Being uninformed and lacking the desire to receive information is considerably higher among non-Estonians, particularly among the non-Estonian speaking population of small towns in North Estonia, than among Estonians, although 40% of non-Estonians also have knowledge of and interest towards the given topic.
  • Informing work continued to be held as the most important step that should be taken in the protection of the birds.
  • Regarding conditions for which people would be ready to donate money, the protection and maintenance of nesting areas and creating protected areas were emphasised. People would also be ready to give personal money for informing work and the conducting of necessary research.
  • The respondents who had closer contacts with the birds also attached more importance to direct communication with the involved land owners and resolving issues related to compensations.
  • In terms of knowledge regarding the birds, the younger and particularly the youngest generation was weaker than the older generation. By regions, the awareness and activity was lower in Tallinn and East-Viru County.

Kotkaklubi 3

results in closer detail
RESULTS IN CLOSER DETAIL
  • Similarly to 2004, 40% of the respondents owned lands in 2008 as well.
  • • Out of the 9 bird species read out to the respondents, people continually thought that they would most easily recognise the white (89%) and black stork (72%). The storks were followed by the grey heron (40%). Things were more complicated with the eagles: the greatest proportion (30%) of the respondents thought that they would recognise the white-tailed eagle, with the least (5%) believing they would recognise the short-toed snake-eagle. 7% of the respondents were of the opinion that they would not recognise any of the named birds. Every tenth respondent out of the younger group (15-39 years) of respondents would not recognise any of the birds; the situation slightly improves with the older people.
  • As compared to the survey conducted in 2004, the self-confidence of the respondents has somewhat decreased, but the ranking according to the recognisability has remained almost the same – the storks still hold the first positions.
  • By regions, the recognisability of birds varied more in terms of certain species: black stork, grey heron, short-eared owl. The black stork is most frequently recognised in North Estonia and most rarely in East-Viru County. In the case of the grey heron, the tendency is exactly the opposite. In East-Viru County, the short-eared owls have been marked significantly more often than usual, just as they were in 2004. The number of those who did not recognise any of the species is above average in Tallinn and East-Viru County.
  • • The respondents were asked to name the 3 most threatened bird species on the list in question. The ranking that had been drawn out already in 2004, was also repeated in this question: the respondents considered the following species, by far, to be the most threatened species:
    • the black stork (51%)
    • the white-tailed eagle (29%)
    • the golden eagle (28%)
  • 35% of the respondents could not point out any species – this number has grown (17% in 2004).

Kotkaklubi 4

results in closer detail1
RESULTS IN CLOSER DETAIL

Respondents who have seen eagles near their homes considered the golden eagle endangered much more frequently than the white-tailed eagle. As compared to other respondents, they noticeably more often classified the osprey and the spotted eagle among the most threatened species. Similar tendencies could also be noticed in the survey conducted in 2004.

By regions, the most daring bird-determiners were the respondents in South and Middle Estonia, while those of Tallinn and East-Viru County were the most modest ones, similarly to 2004.

•The proportion of those respondents who have had personal contacts with a black stork or eagle is small and almost the same as it was in 2004. 80% of the respondents have not seen eagles in their immediate vicinity, 72% have not seen a black stork. Only a very low percentage of the population is aware of a nesting spot. 38% of the land owners nevertheless have some contact with the black stork. 27% of the land owners know that there are eagles nesting in their immediate vicinity. In both cases, 1% of the land owners are aware that there are nests on their lands.

•The respondents who have seen the named birds in their surroundings were asked how they would feel towards creating a protected area for these species on their lands. 36% of such respondents would unconditionally consent to the protected area, 26% on certain conditions. 8% were clearly opposed to it and 30% could not form an opinion on that matter. The main conditions were that the protected area would not hinder the owner’s economic activities. The responses differed from the results of 2004 by only a few per cent.

Kotkaklubi 5

results in closer detail2
RESULTS IN CLOSER DETAIL
  • Opinions on the situation and role of eagles in Estonian nature differed very little from those of 2004. Almost all residents were continually of the opinion that the eagles play an important role in nature and that they are the symbols of nature conservation. As compared to the data of the survey conducted in 2004, the average assessment has nevertheless slightly improved. The people are also slightly more conscious that the number of eagles is low and dropping. The proportion of those who think that the protection of the nesting spots of eagles damages the interests of land owners has slightly decreased; earlier, too, this was suspected only by a small part of the residents. The attitude of land owners towards the issue was more positive than the average attitude, even regarding the question of the damage caused by the eagles.
  • •The two most important measuresthat should be put into practice, first and foremost, for the protection of the eagle and the black stork, continue to be the more efficient informing of people and creating protected areas. Both measures were mentioned by over half of the respondents. When compared to 2004, the aspect of informing has received a slight priority.
  • •The opinionson the sufficiency of informationrelated to eagles divided almost exactly the same as it did in 2004: 44% of the residents do not know anything and are not interested in any information, 20% are sufficiently informed, and 36% are not sufficiently informed, but they would like to be.
  • •Just as before, the main sources of information related to the topic are the television and radio (49%), which is followed by the press (26%) and books (22%). Nevertheless, the role of television and radio has slightly diminished, while the role of the Internet, in particular, has grown (from 10% to 20%), and, to some extent, the role of personal contacts, school and training, and nature-themed events as well. 26% of the respondents have not received information from anywhere. Among Estonians there were 20%, and among non-Estonians there were 39% of such people.
  • The Internet has climbed to second place, following school, among the youngest respondents. In the case of respondents who are aware of eagles nesting in their immediate vicinity, books (42%) as well as personal contacts (37%) are significantly more important than for other respondents.

Kotkaklubi 6

results in closer detail3
RESULTS IN CLOSER DETAIL
  • According to the opinion of the residents, the impact of joining the European Union was mainly positive for the protection of Estonian nature both in 2008 and 2004 – particularly due to the increased attention on nature conservation.
  • The willingness of the residents to donate a portion of their annual income for the protection of eagles or black storks has become slightly more severe when compared to 2004. Although those who would not want to pay at all form nearly one third of the respondents (31%), and 13% can not or do not want to give any promises, over half ofthe population is willing to pay, but mainly when there is the right appeal. In general, the proportions nevertheless coincide with the attitudes of 2004. The willingness to donate without any conditions is considerably higher among the respondents who have had contacts with endangered birds than among other respondents.
  • On the basis of free responses regarding the specific activities, in the case of which people would be willing to donate, the first position was held by everything related to building and maintenance of nests (59 times), which was followed by creating or maintenance of protected areas (34 times), and feeding the birds (20 times). Informing, cleaning up pollution, conducting research and other similar activities were also mentioned. Some people indicated the need to keep the flow of money transparent. It is difficult to bring out fixed sums regarding the amount of donations, but the proportions are not very different from the results of 2004. Most frequently, the donated amount remained between EEK 50-100 (21%), just as it did in 2004. Nearly half of the respondents did not give any response or would not pay anything.
  • The people in whose close surroundings there are endangered birds nesting were more generous in their donations.

Kotkaklubi 7

2 percentage of the respondents considering to recognize the bird species n all respondents
2. Percentage of the respondents considering to recognize the bird species. n=all respondents

Kotkaklubi 9

4 personal contacts with black storks and eagles n all respondents
4. Personal contacts with black storks and eagles. n=all respondents

BLACK STORK

EAGLES

Kotkaklubi 11

slide12
5. Land owners´attitude to the creation of new protected areas on their landsn=have a nest nearby or see eagles and black storks often

Kotkaklubi 12

9 the most important measures to protect the endangered birds n all respondents
9. The most important measures to protect the endangered birds. n=all respondents

Kotkaklubi 16

12 impact of joining the european union on the protection of estonian nature n all respondents
12. Impact of joining the European Union on the protection of Estonian nature n=all respondents

Kotkaklubi 19

13 readyness to donate for the protection of eagles or black storks all respondents n 980
13. Readyness to donate for the protection of eagles or black storks All respondents n=980

Kotkaklubi 20

slide21
14. How much money are the people going to donate for the protection of eagles or black stork? n=all respondents

Kotkaklubi 21

project team
Project team

Questionnaire and report: Hella Kaldaru

Field work managers: Marina Karpištšenko, Rutt Vihtla, Kristel Toom

Data processing: Kaire Siimon

Graphs: Hella Kaldaru

Contacts:

Phone: 6 684 859

Fax: 6 277 584

E-post: Hella@turu-uuringute.ee

Homepage: www.turu-uuringute.ee

Address: Tatari 6, 10 116 Tallinn

Kotkaklubi 22