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Participation in full-time higher education 1996-2010: a ‘home international’ perspective Linda Croxford and David Raffe University of Edinburgh Changing Inequalities and Access to a Differentiated HE System Seminar at the University of Edinburgh, 14 June 2013.

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Participation in full-time higher education 1996-2010: a ‘home international’ perspective

Linda Croxford and David Raffe

University of Edinburgh

Changing Inequalities and Access to a Differentiated HE System

Seminar at the University of Edinburgh, 14 June 2013

participation in full time higher education 1996 2010 a home international perspective
Participation in full-time higher education 1996-2010: a ‘home international’ perspective

Widening participation (WP)

  • As HE expanded, have more working class/ ethnic minorities succeeded in entering HE?

Home-international differences and devolution

  • Do trends in participation differ across the UK?
  • Are these associated with differences in tuition fees following devolution?

Cross-border flows

  • Which students enter HE in the rest of UK (RUK)?

Success rates

  • How “fair” is the admissions process?
as he expanded have more working class ethnic minorities succeeded in entering he
As HE expanded, have more working class/ ethnic minorities succeeded in entering HE?
  • This was a period of expansion in UK HE: the number of UK-domiciled entrants rose by 53%
  • The proportion of ethnic minority entrants increased
  • The social class composition of entrants did not change much over the period
devolution tuition fees
Devolution: tuition fees
  • 1998 an up-front annual fee of £1,000 was introduced across the UK
  • 2000 – Scotland replaced fees by a smaller ‘graduate endowment’ (deferred)
  • 2006 –England & N Ireland increased fees to £3000 (deferred) - accompanied by ‘fair access’ measures.
  • 2007 –Wales - increased fee to £3000, but offset for Welsh students by extra student grant
  • 2007 –Scotland- graduate endowment abolished
  • 2010 – Wales –extra student grant abolished
are there different trends in participation across the uk
Are there different trends in participation across the UK?
  • Working class-participation is highest in Northern Ireland and lowest in Scotland
  • The introduction of fees did not reduce working-class access to HE – and in Scotland their abolition did not increase it.
  • Ethnic minority participation has increased most in London and (to a lesser extent) in the rest of England
cross border flows1
Cross-border flows
  • Declining proportion of UK students studying in another home country (home-country trend more than home-region trend)
  • English and Scottish-domiciled students are least likely to enter RUK institutions
  • Even in 2010 around one third of new students from Wales and N Ireland studied outside their home country
  • The outflow of students from Wales was matched by an even larger inflow from the rest of the UK
  • Most cross-border flows either by English students or to English institutions
  • Decline in flow of N Ireland students to Scotland – but flow to English HEIs remained steady
which students enter he in the rest of uk ruk
Which students enter HE in the rest of UK (RUK)?
  • Those applying and entering RUK were most likely to be well-qualified middle-class students seeking places at Russell Group universities
  • But many less-qualified students from N Ireland (and Wales) go to post-92 universities in England
  • Ethnic minority students from Scotland, N Ireland and Wales more likely to go to England to study
  • But ethnic minority students from England more likely to remain in England
  • Fee differentials for Welsh students in 2006-8 did not reduce working-class participation
fair admissions results of statistical models of entry to any he institution
Fair admissions? (results of statistical models of entry to any HE institution)
  • Prior qualifications are main predictor of success
  • Applicants from managerial & professional classes had higher success rates – even after controlling for prior qualifications
  • Ethnic minorities more successful than white applicants
  • Applicants from independent schools less successful – and from FE Colleges more successful
  • Effects of 3 and 4 above explained by selectivity of institutions applied to (analysis of entry to pre-1992 institutions shows opposite effects)
home country differences in success rates ie interactions
Home country differences in success rates (ie interactions)
  • None of the social class effects differed between home countries
  • Scottish applicants from independent schools were more likely to gain an HEI place (but no difference in entry to pre-1992 university)
  • N Irish and Scottish applicants from FE Colleges were more likely to gain an HEI place
  • Ethnic minority students from Scotland were less likely to gain an HEI place
finally
Finally

This study shows:

  • The persistence of social inequalities in participation in HE;
  • Similarity in inequalities between home countries – but compositional differences;
  • No effect on inequalities of country differences in tuition fees;
  • Slight decline in cross-border flows – but a complex pattern