American Indians and the American Revolution. Dr. Greg O’Brien Department of History University of Southern Mississippi. The Indian Role in the War. Which side did American Indians support in the Revolution? Britain? United States? Other? Indians united?.
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American Indians and the American Revolution Dr. Greg O’Brien Department of History University of Southern Mississippi
The Indian Role in the War • Which side did American Indians support in the Revolution? • Britain? • United States? • Other? • Indians united?
Those who fought on the American side • Catawbas (South Carolina) • Penobscots, Passamaquoddies, Micmacs (Maine) • Stockbridge Indians (Massachusetts) → • Oneidas and Tuscaroras (New York, part of the Iroquois Confederacy)
The Iroquois Civil War • Joseph Brant (Mohawk) & Sir William Johnson • The Iroquois Confederacy (Six Nations) • Oneidas and Tuscaroras split • Presbyterian missionaries • Battle of Oriskany, 1777 • General John Sullivan’s invasion, 1779 • “War on vegetables” Battle of Oriskany, 1777
Other groups who fought on the side of Britain • Cherokees • Disaster • Dragging Canoe • Chickamaugas • Shawnees • Murder of Chief Cornstalk, 1777 • Delawares • Gnadenhutten massacre, 1782 • Choctaws • Creeks • Chickasaws • Warning to Virginia
Demographic Economic Social Political Psychological Early U.S. Indian policy: Need for land Treaties by “right of conquest” New Constitution in 1787/89 placed Indian affairs under control of what department? “Civilization” Plan Impacts of the American Revolution on American Indians