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Hormonal Regulation of Carbohydrates. Hormones. What are hormones? maintain homeostasis (jack) chemical messenger (jady) chemical produced at one part of the body in response to situation at another part of the body insulin & glucagon – from the pancreas to regulate blood glucose level (bgl).

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Presentation Transcript
hormones
Hormones

What are hormones?

  • maintain homeostasis (jack)
  • chemical messenger (jady)
  • chemical produced at one part of the body in response to situation at another part of the body
  • insulin & glucagon – from the pancreas to regulate blood glucose level (bgl)
blood glucose level
When B.G.L is high

Insulin is released (β)

body cells to take in glucose

Muscles and liver takes in glucose (why?)

muscle & liver cells use glucose to make glycogen for storage

Excess glucose is turned into fat (why?)

long-term storage of energy

When B.G.L is low

Glucagon is released (α)

Epinephrine and cortisol are released

Hydrolysis of glycogen

Blood Glucose Level
insulin promotes energy storage
Insulin Promotes Energy Storage
  • Uptake of glucose into some cells
  • Glycogenesis: glucose  glycogen (reversible)
  • Glucose  fatty acids (irreversible)
  • Stimulate protein synthesis
hypoglycemia low glucose
Hypoglycemia – low glucose
  • Feel nauseated, dizzy, irritable, sleepy, etc
  • Too much insulin produced
  • Prolonged exercise
  • Reactive hypoglycemia
  • Fasting hypoglycemia
glucagon promotes mobilization of stored energy
Glucagon PromotesMobilization of Stored Energy
  • Glycogenolysis: glycogen  glucose

glucagon – liver to break up glycogen to release glucose into the blood for energy

epinephrine – muscle to break up glycogen to release glucose used by muscles

  • Gluconeogenesis: amino acids  glucose

liver glycogen lasts for about 24 hrs after that the body breaks down proteins for energy

  • Ketogenesis: fatty acids  ketones (acidic/toxic)
ketogenesis
Ketogenesis
  • Fatty acids  ketones
  • Occurs in the liver
  • Stimulated by glucagon
  • Energy usable by the brain, heart, muscles, and kidney
  • Accumulation of ketones  ketosis
immediate energy source
Immediate Energy Source
  • Cortisol released in response to a “fight or flight” situation
    • Decrease glucose uptake (exept for the brain)
    • Stimulate glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis
concept map
Concept Map

Groups of 2 or 3

  • Blood glucose level

Scott & Tommy / Isabelle & Shirley

  • Chemical reactions in b.g.l. regulation

Joseph & jack / lily & Noelle

  • Hormones involved in b.g.l. regulation

Jady & Leo & George

Theo & Emily & Maggie