Jamestown. Chapter 3.1 Early Colonies Have Mixed Success.
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Jamestown Chapter 3.1 Early Colonies Have Mixed Success
Roanoke is not the only colony that didn’t survive. In 1607, the Sagadahoc colony was formed in Maine. Many of the colonists were convicts. Arguments, a harsh winter, fights with the Native Americans and food shortages forced most to return to England.
Joint-Stock Company A joint-stock company was backed by investors which meant people would put money into a project to earn profits. If the company failed one person didn’t lose it all, but investors divided the losses.
The Virginia Company of London The Virginia Company of Plymouth Two Companies Emerged
In 1607, the Virginia Company of London financed an expedition to the Chesapeake Bay • They named the settlement Jamestown after King James Jamestown 1607
Swamp land • Malaria-carrying mosquitoes (made the colonists sick with fever) • Ill from the drinking water • They were also told that the area was rich in gold, so many of them searched for gold instead of building houses It wasn’t easy…..
A soldier and adventurer • Took control of the colony • Made a new rule… Introducing: John Smith
Worked with Powhatan to trade for corn. Extended an existing wall around Jamestown His method worked and Jamestown began to prosper
John Smith was injured and sent back to England… But not before 800 more arrived in Jamestown from England.
Tensions grow between the Powhatan and the colonists • The Powhatan stop trading with the colonists and attack them • The colonists won’t leave the fort and “starving time” begins • They eat rats, mice and snakes Tensions Grow…
In 1610, Lord De La Warr arrives with two new ships • But only 60, of the previous colonist, have survived • He has been appointed as the new governor of Jamestown • He imposed strict discipline and “starving time” ends Introducing: Lord De La Warr
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpA5O46Ioyk Introducing: John Rolfe
With the rise in tobacco, the Virginia Company wanted to enjoy the benefits, but the colonists felt that they deserved a share • The company let settlers own land because they worked harder when it was their own land • 50-acre land grants were awarded to those who could pay their way to the colonies • In 1619 the population was 600 • In 1621 the population was 2000 Jamestown Grows…
Those who could not pay their way to the New World • They sold their labor to the person who paid their passage to the colony • After working for a number of years they were free Indentured Servants
Colonists were sick of the governor, who represented the interests of the Virginia Company back in London • Created the House of Burgesses in 1619 • It became the first elected assembly in the American colonies The House of Burgesses
At first… • The Powhatan and the colonists worked well together • The Powhatan taught them how to plant corn, catch fish, and capture wild fowl Conflicts with the Powhatan
Powhatan agreed to let John Rolfe marry his daughter Pocahontas to establish peace • She even traveled to England with Rolfe to raise money for Jamestown, but died of smallpox before she could return home • Rolfe and Pocahontas’ marriage didn’t help Jamestown like they thought it would… Introducing: Pocahontas
As tobacco became more popular, more land was required to plant it…land that did not belong to the settlers. In 1622, Powhatan killedhundreds of Jamestown residents.
Not only did colonists fight with the natives but they fought with each other too…
By the 1670’s, ¼ of the free white men were indentured servants • They resent the wealthy eastern landowners because the former indentured servants did not own land • They had to fight the Native Americans to get land • They opposed Governor William Berkeley who imposed high taxes and favored the wealthy landowners Former Indentured Servants
Bacon led a group of landless frontier settlers against Berkeley • Bacon demanded that Berkeley approve a war against the Native Americans so that these men could get more land to plant tobacco • Berkeley refused… Introducing: Nathaniel Bacon
In 1676, Bacon and his men marched into Jamestown Took control of the House of Burgesses Burned Jamestown to the ground Bacon suddenly fell ill and the rebellion was over Bacon’s Rebellion
Berkeley hanged Bacon’s followers • King Charles II gets angry with Berkeley and his actions. He calls Berkeley back to England. • House of Burgesses passes laws to prevent a royal governor, like Berkeley, from assuming such power again • This was an important step against tyranny Effects of Bacon’s Rebellion