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Chapter 1 How Computers Work
You Will Learn… • About the functions performed by different hardware components of a microcomputer • About the three kinds of software and how they relate to one another and to hardware • How the CPU uses primary and secondary storage to manage software
Hardware and Software • Hardware • Physical components of the computer • Monitor • Keyboard • Memory chips • Hard drive • Software • Set of instructions that directs the hardware to accomplish a task
Hardware • Central processing unit • Most important hardware device • Receives input and sends output • Stores data and instructions; performs calculations • Requirements of hardware devices • Method for CPU to communicate with the device • Software to instruct and control the device • Electricity to power the device
Hardware Used for Input and Output • Ports • Physical connectors that allow a cable from a peripheral device to be attached • Input devices • Keyboard • Mouse • Output devices • Monitor • Printer
Hardware Inside the Computer Case • System board • Permanent storage • Floppy drive • Hard drive • CD-ROM drive • Power supply • Circuit boards • CMOS (most CPUs) • TTL • Cables
CMOS Chips • Require less electricity • Hold data longer after electricity is turned off • Are slower • Produce less heat
The System Board • Largest and most important circuit board • Contains the CPU
Major Components of System Boards • For processing • CPU • Chip set that supports CPU by controlling many system board activities • For temporary storage • RAM • Cache memory continued
Major Components of System Boards • Allow CPU to communicate with other devices • BUS • Expansion slots • Firmware and setup information • Flash BIOS memory chip • CMOS configuration chip • Electrical system • Power supply connections
Components Used Primarily for Processing • CPU or microprocessor • Executes most computer processes • Chip set • Relieves CPU of some processing • Provides careful timing of activities to increase overall speed • Coprocessor • Supports and enhances function of some older CPUs (pre-1995)
Temporary (Primary) Storage Devices • Used by the CPU to process data and instructions • Provided by RAM (random access memory devices) • SIMMS (single inline memory modules) • DIMMS (dual inline memory modules) • Cache memory
Cache Memory • For new CPUs • Stored inside CPU housing on a memory chip that sits close to the CPU microchip • For older CPUs • Stored on the system board either in individual chips or on memory modules called COAST (cache on a stick)
Permanent (Secondary) Storage Devices • Remote to the CPU • Permanently hold data, even when PC is turned off • Most popular devices: • Hard disks • Floppy disks • Zip drives • CD-ROMs