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Chapter Transparency

Chapter Transparency

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  1. Chapter Transparency

  2. The oil resources of Saudi Arabia are estimated to represent around twenty-five percent of the world’s proven reserves. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest exporter of oil. Oil and petroleum products account for more than 90 percent of the country’s income. Section 1 DYK

  3. I. Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (pages 502–503) • A. The size and power of the Ottoman Empire decreased dramatically beginning at the end of the 1700s. In the 1800s, Ottoman rule ended in North Africa and Greece, and the empire lost much of its territory in Europe. B. In 1876, Ottoman reformers seized the government and adopted a constitution that would form a legislature. They named Abdulhamid II sultan, but he immediately suspended the constitution and ruled by himself. Section 1 DLN-1

  4. I. Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (pages 502–503) • C. A group of reformers called the Young Turks forced the restoration of the constitution in 1908. They deposed the sultan in 1909. At the same time, many ethnic Turks pressed for an independent Turkish state. D. During World War I, the Ottomans sided with Germany, which caused Britain to attack Ottoman Arab states. The British convinced Arabs to revolt against Ottoman rule. Arabia declared its independence in 1916. After losing hundreds of thousands of soldiers, the Ottomans made peace with the Allies in 1918. Section 1 DLN-2

  5. I. Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (pages 502–503) • E. During World War I, the Ottomans had killed or been responsible for the deaths of nearly a million Christian Armenians. The Armenians had sought independence and were brutally attacked and deported by the Ottomans. The Allies denounced the genocide, or deliberate mass murder, of the Armenians, but they did nothing to prevent it. A similar process of mass murder would be called ethnic cleansingin the Bosnian War of 1993 to 1996. Section 1 DLN-3

  6. I. Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire (pages 502–503) • F. At the end of World War I, the Ottoman Empire collapsed. Turkey was all that remained under Ottoman control. When Greece invaded western Turkey, Turkish leaders decided to form a new Republic of Turkey. Under the command of Mustafa Kemal, they were able to drive the Greek troops out. In 1923, the last Ottoman sultan fled the country. Mustafa Kemal Section 1 DLN-4

  7. II. The Modernization of Turkey (page 504) • A. Mustafa Kemal, known as Atatürk, became president of Turkey. He tried to transform Turkey into a modern state. Although Turkey had a democratic system of government. Atatürk did not allow opposition. B. Atatürk made changes throughout Turkish society. These included eliminating Arabic elements from the Turkish language, adopting the Roman alphabet, and forcing people to adopt last names. Section 1 DLN-6

  8. II. The Modernization of Turkey (page 504) • C. Atatürk established factories and directed the economy. He tried to modernize farming, but to little effect. Atatürk wanted Turkey to be a secular state, one that rejects religious influences in politics. In 1924 he abolished the caliphate and forbade men to wear the fez, or traditional Turkish Muslim hat. He forbade the Islamic custom of women wearing a veil. New laws gave women equal marriage and inheritance rights and in time, the right to vote. Turks could join non-Islamic religions. Section 1 DLN-7

  9. II. The Modernization of Turkey (page 504) • D. While devout Muslims did not accept the reforms, Atatürk’s influence on Turkey was lasting and profound. Section 1 DLN-8

  10. Section 1 DLN-10

  11. III. The Beginnings of Modern Iran(page 505) • A. A similar process of modernization was taking place in Persia during the early twentieth century. The Qajar dynasty (1794–1925) was faced with increasing domestic problems. The dynasty leaders invited Great Britain and Russia to help defend them from the Persian people. B. In 1908, oil was discovered, which attracted more foreigners. Oil exports rose, but most of the profits went to British investors. The foreign presence led to the rise of a native Persian nationalist movement. Section 1 DLN-11

  12. III. The Beginnings of Modern Iran(page 505) • C. In 1921, Reza Khan led a military mutiny and seized Tehran, the Persian capital city. In 1925, Reza Khan became the shah, or king. He was called Reza Shah Pahlavi. D. Reza Shah Pahlavi tried to follow the example of Kemal Atatürk in Turkey. He reformed and modernized the government, the military, and the economic system. Persia was renamed Iran. Section 1 DLN-12

  13. III. The Beginnings of Modern Iran(page 505) • E. Reza Shah Pahlavi did not try to destroy the power of Islam. However, he encouraged Western-style education and forbade women to wear the veil in public. F. To free himself from Great Britain and the Soviet Union, Reza Shah Pahlavi drew closer to Nazi Germany. During World War II, the shah harbored a large number of Germans. Great Britain and the Soviet Union invaded. Reza Shah Pahlavi resigned and his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, replaced him. Section 1 DLN-13

  14. IV. Arab Nationalism (pages 505–506) • A. The Arabs were a group of people united by language and religion but who had no nation. Despite promises of independence after World War I, Britain and France ended up controlling the Arab mandates of Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. These mandates were created by Europeans, who set their borders and divided the peoples. The League of Nations supervised the mandates. Section 1 DLN-15

  15. IV. Arab Nationalism (pages 505–506) • B. Arabs did not have strong identification with the mandates, but some leaders spoke out for Arab unity. Ibn Saud united Arabs on the Arabian Peninsula and formed the kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. Though places in the kingdom were the center of Islamic worship, the desertkingdom was very poor. Sultan Ibn Saud, who established the kingdom of Saudi Arabia Section 1 DLN-16

  16. IV. Arab Nationalism (pages 505–506) • C. During the 1930s, oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia and the kingdom was soon flooded with Western oil industries. The kingdom soon became very wealthy as a major producer of oil. Section 1 DLN-17

  17. V. The Problem of Palestine (page 506) • A. Great Britain controlled the mandate of Palestine after World War I. Palestine was the ancient home of the Jewish people, but few Jews had lived there for nearly 2,000 years. In 1917, Britain issued the Balfour Declaration, which supported the idea of a national home for Jewish people in Palestine. B. The British promised that the rights of non-Jewish peoples in Palestine would be protected. However, Arabs were angered that the British would create a Jewish home nation in a land that had long been 98 percent Muslim. Section 1 DLN-19

  18. V. The Problem of Palestine (page 506) • C. Jewish settlers began to arrive in Palestine. As the Nazis increased the persecution of Jews in Europe, more and more Jews arrived in Palestine. Tensions increased between Jews and Muslims. D. In response, the British tried to restrict Jewish immigration to Palestine. In 1939, Britain limited immigration to 75,000 Jewish people during the next five years. After that, no more Jews could enter the country. Section 1 DLN-20

  19. Ho Chi Minh was an experienced revolutionary obsessed by one goal: an independent Vietnam. In 1946, he told the French that they could kill ten of his men for every Frenchman killed and the Vietnamese would still win the war. The French ignored the warning and paid dearly for it. Section 2 DYK

  20. I. Movements Toward Independence in Africa (pages 508–509) • A. Even though black Africans had fought for the British and French in World War I, their hopes for independence after the war were not met. The Versailles peace settlements took away German colonies only to give them as mandates to France and Britain. B. Many Africans became politically active after World War I. They sought reforms that would allow them the same ideals of liberty and equality espoused by Western democratic nations. Section 2 DLN-1

  21. I. Movements Toward Independence in Africa (pages 508–509) • C. In Kenya, the Young Kikuyu Association protested in 1921 the high taxes imposed by Great Britain. Their leader Harry Thuku was jailed. When a crowd tried to free him, the British killed 50 of them and exiled Thuku. D. In Libya, guerrilla fighters under Omar Mukhtar fought the Italian rulers and defeated them several times. The Italians put Libyans in concentration camps and eventually killed Mukhtar, which ended the fighting. Section 2 DLN-2

  22. I. Movements Toward Independence in Africa (pages 508–509) • E. Colonial powers usually responded to revolts with force. In some cases, they made some reforms, hoping to satisfy African peoples. By the 1930s, many new African leaders emerged. They insisted on independence and said that reforms were not enough. Section 2 DLN-3

  23. I. Movements Toward Independence in Africa (pages 508–509) • F. Many of the new African leaders had been educated abroad. W.E.B. Du Bois and Marcus Garvey influenced Africans who studied in the United States. Du Bois was an African American and led a movement to make all Africans aware of their cultural heritage. Garvey was a Jamaican living in New York City who stressed the need for African unity. This was called Pan-Africanism. Section 2 DLN-4

  24. I. Movements Toward Independence in Africa (pages 508–509) • G. Jomo Kenyatta was an African man from Kenya who had been educated in Great Britain. He argued that British rule was destroying traditional African cultures. Léopold Senghor and Nnamdi Azikiwe were leaders in Senegal and Nigeria, respectively, who worked to end colonial rule. Jomo Kenyatta Section 2 DLN-5

  25. Section 2 DLN-6

  26. II. The Movement for Indian Independence (pages 510–511) • A. Before World War I, Mohandas Gandhi had been active in the independence movement to end British rule in India. He was known as Mahatma, or “Great Soul.” Gandhi organized mass protests. He insisted that the protests be nonviolent. Gandhi used civil disobedience—the refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust—to achieve his goals. Gandhi with Jawaharlal Nehru in the mid-1940s Section 2 DLN-8

  27. II. The Movement for Indian Independence (pages 510–511) • B. In 1919, British troops killed hundreds of unarmed protesters. Gandhi was eventually arrested for his role in the protests and was in prison for several years. C. In 1935, Great Britain passed the Government of India Act. The act gave more government positions to Indians and the right to vote to a small percentage of the population. Section 2 DLN-9

  28. II. The Movement for Indian Independence (pages 510–511) • D. In 1885 the Indian National Congress (INC) was formed to seek reforms. However, by the 1920s reforms were not enough. After he got out of jail, Gandhi went back to work to spread his message to the Indian people. E. Nonviolence was the core of Gandhi’s campaign. He said that it was wrong to harm any living being and that hate could only be overcome by love. He advocated noncooperation, such as not buying cloth imported from Britain and government-made salt. He told Indians not to pay their taxes. Section 2 DLN-10

  29. II. The Movement for Indian Independence (pages 510–511) • F. The British raised the tax on salt and prohibited Indians from harvesting their own. In 1930, Gandhi protested by walking to the sea on the Salt March. At the ocean, Gandhi defied the British by picking up salt. Thousands of Indians followed suit. Gandhi and other INC leaders were arrested. Section 2 DLN-11

  30. II. The Movement for Indian Independence (pages 510–511) • G. In the 1930s, Jawaharlal Nehruemerged as an important leader in Indian politics. Nehru had studied law in Great Britain and was an upper class intellectual. The independence movement split into two paths. Gandhi represented the traditional, religious, and Indian path. Nehru represented the modern, secular, and Western. While the two paths shared the same goal, the division created uncertainty about what the future of India would look like. Section 2 DLN-12

  31. II. The Movement for Indian Independence (pages 510–511) • H. Another division in Indian politics was that between Hindus and Muslims. Muslims objected to the Hindu control of the INC. In 1930, the Muslim League under Muhammad Ali Jinnah called for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan in the northwest. Section 2 DLN-13

  32. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) • A.Between 1900 and 1920, Japanese society adopted many aspects of Western societies and became an increasingly prosperous and industrial country. B. The zaibatsuwere large financial and industrial corporations. With government help, these firms developed into vast companies that controlled major parts of Japanese industry. By 1937, the four major zaibatsu controlled a large amount of the economy. Section 2 DLN-15

  33. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) • C. As wealth became concentrated among the relative few, more and more people had less. Food shortages, inflation, and other economic problems led to riots and unrest. The Great Depression had a severe impact on workers and farmers. D. Traditionalists called for a return to older Japanese values. They rejected the influence of Western ideas in education and politics. Section 2 DLN-16

  34. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) • E. In the early 1900s, Japan had trouble finding sources of raw materials and foreign markets. Until World War I, the Japanese had expanded their territory to meet these needs. This policy worried many Western nations, especially the United States. Section 2 DLN-17

  35. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) Section 2 DLN-18

  36. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) • F. The United States wanted to keep Asia open for trade. In 1922, the United States held a conference that produced a nine-power treaty that recognized China’s territorial integrity and the Open Door policy. In return, Japan was allowed to control southern Manchuria. G. During the 1920s, Japan tried to use economic and diplomatic means to realize Asian interests. The policy was unpopular. New heavy industries developed in Japan. To run these industries the Japanese needed new sources of raw materials. Section 2 DLN-19

  37. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) • H. At the end of the 1920s, problems arose that led to a rise in militarism in Japan. A group within the ruling party gained control of the political system. Many in the group thought that the Japanese system had been corrupted by Western ideas. I. During the 1930s, extremist patriotic organizations emerged, some as part of the military. In 1931, a group of army officers directed an invasion of Manchuria. The government opposed the move, but the people supported it. In time, the military and other supporters of Japanese expansion dominated the government. Section 2 DLN-20

  38. Section 2 DLN-21

  39. III. The Rise of Militarist Japan(pages 511–513) • J. Japan was put on wartime status. In 1938, a military draft was begun. The government controlled all economic resources. Labor unions were disbanded. There was only one political party. Western ideas were purged from education and culture. Traditional Japanese values became important once again. Section 2 DLN-22

  40. IV. NationalismandRevolutioninAsia(page 513) • A. Before World War I, Marxist ideas had no appeal for Asian intellectuals. The mostly agrarian Asian societies seemed ill-fitted for revolution. After the Russian Revolution, however, it became clear that Marxist ideas could be used to overthrow an outdated system. Section 2 DLN-24

  41. IV. NationalismandRevolutioninAsia(page 513) • B. In 1920, Lenin determined to spread communism to the outside world. The Comintern, or Communist International, was a worldwide organization of Communist parties dedicated to revolution. Comintern agents were trained in Moscow and then returned to their own countries. By the end of the 1920s, almost all Asian countries had a Communist party. Section 2 DLN-25

  42. IV. NationalismandRevolutioninAsia(page 513) • C. The success of Communist parties in Asia varied greatly. Some cooperated with existing nationalist parties to overthrow Western colonial rulers. For example, in French Indochina, Ho Chi Minh, who had been trained in Moscow, organized the Vietnamese Communists. China had the strongest Communist-nationalist alliance. However, in most Asian colonial societies, communism had little success in the 1930s. Section 2 DLN-26

  43. Unlike Stalin in the Soviet Union, Mao Zedong in China believed that the revolution could come from a rural peasant population. As Mao’s military successes brought him closer to power, his Soviet guides decided that rural communism was better than no communism at all. This fundamental difference between Chinese and Soviet communism eventually contributed to the split between China and the Soviet Union. Section 3 DYK

  44. I. Nationalists and Communists (page 515) • A. In all of Asia, revolutionary Marxism had its greatest impact in China. By 1920, two political forces emerged to challenge the Chinese government: Sun Yat-sen’s Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). B. In 1921, young radicals formed the Chinese Communist Party in the city of Shanghai. Comintern agents advised them to join with the older Nationalist Party. Sun Yat-sen welcomed the Communists. In 1923, the two parties formed an alliance to drive out the Chinese warlords and the imperialist powers. Section 3 DLN-1

  45. I. Nationalists and Communists (page 515) • C. The two parties worked together for three years. They trained an army. In 1926 they began the Northern Expedition and took control of all of China south of Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). D. Eventually the Nationalists and the Communists came into conflict. After Sun Yat-sen died, Chiang Kai-shek became the Nationalist leader. He pretended to support the Communists but did not. In 1927, he killed thousands of Communists in the Shanghai Massacre. The Communist-Nationalist alliance ended. Section 3 DLN-2

  46. I. Nationalists and Communists (page 515) • E. In 1928, Chiang Kai-shek founded a new republic in Nanjing. He worked to reunify the nation, but continued to think that the Communists were his main enemy. Section 3 DLN-3

  47. II. The Communists in Hiding (page 516) • A. After the Shanghai Massacre, the Communist leaders went into hiding in Shanghai. They revived the Communist movement among the discontented urban working class. Some Communist leaders went south of Chiang Jiang to Jiangxi Province. Mao Zedong was their leader. Mao was convinced that the Chinese revolution would come from the rural peasants rather than the urban working class. Mao Zedong (left) Section 3 DLN-5

  48. II. The Communists in Hiding (page 516) • B. Chiang Kai-shek was able to push the Communist leaders out of Shanghai. They joined Mao in the south. Then the Nationalists attacked the Communists in Jiangxi, but Mao used guerrilla tacticsto fight successfully against superior numbers. Mao had four slogans about fighting: “When the enemy advances, we retreat! When the enemy halts and camps, we trouble them! When the enemy tries to avoid battle, we attack! When the enemy retreats, we pursue!” Section 3 DLN-6

  49. III. The Long March (page 517) • A. In 1933, Chiang’s army surrounded the Communists in Jiangxi. Outnumbered, Mao’s army, called the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), broke through the Nationalist lines. Mao led his troops for 6,000 miles to northwestern China and reached the last surviving Communist base. This march became known as the Long March. Section 3 DLN-8

  50. III. The Long March (page 517) • B. The Long March took one year. The Communists had little food, faced freezing temperatures, and had to fight all the way. Ninety thousand troops began the march. Nine thousand reached their destination. During the Long March, Mao became the undisputed leader of the Chinese Communist Party. Section 3 DLN-9