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Phonetics and Phonology . 1.4; 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 (ex.) 4.1, 4.2, 4.3; Ref. 3.8 Homework: 3.6, #1-7, #8 (choose any three) [Mar 5]. Phonetics. The sound inventory — and how those sounds are formed — is one of the things we know about our language . Secondary Function?.

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Phonetics and phonology

Phonetics and Phonology

1.4; 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 (ex.)

4.1, 4.2, 4.3; Ref. 3.8

Homework: 3.6, #1-7, #8 (choose any three) [Mar 5]


  • The sound inventory — and how those sounds are formed — is one of the things we know about our language

Secondary function
Secondary Function?

  • According to evolution theories, vocal process is a secondary function. Organs of speech have a primary function:

    Breathing, expelling toxins and waste material, tearing flesh, masticating, swallowing

  • Lungs, teeth, tongue, uvula, interior of mouth

Secondary function1
Secondary Function?

  • Only glottis & vocal folds appear primarily involved with speech

Secondary function2
Secondary function?

  • Critical thinking question:

  • If language is what distinguishes humans from other life forms, can it be said that speech is a secondary function?


  • See p. 49 chart of speech production mechanism

  • We need to understand the organs and processes involved in the

    * “Pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism”

Language sounds
Language sounds

1. Consonants

2. Vowels

1 consonants
1. Consonants

  • * We can know three things about consonants:

    A. Voicing

    B. Place of articulation

    C. Manner of articulation


  • We call speech sounds “voiced” when the vocal folds in the glottis vibrate as the sound is produced

  • m

  • s ~ z

  • p ~ b

    (see pg. 50)

Place of articulation where the sound is made
Place of articulation*(where the sound is made)

(see pg. 51)

  • Lips (bilabial)

  • Lips and teeth (labiodental)

  • Teeth (interdental)

  • Alveolar ridge (alveolar)

  • Palate (palatal)

  • Velum (velar)

  • Glottis (glottal)

Manner of articulation how the sound is made
Manner of articulation*(how the sound is made)

  • Stops

    stopand release air flow

    too, pie, key

Manner of articulation
Manner of articulation

  • Fricatives

    friction restricts the airflow

    fill, so, she

Manner of articulation1
Manner of articulation

  • Affricates

    combination of stop + friction

    church; judge

Manner of articulation2
Manner of articulation

  • Nasal

    air passes through nose

    nose; home; sing

Manner of articulation3
Manner of articulation

  • Liquid

  • air flows around tongue, in a liquid manner

    ride; line; all

Manner of articulation4
Manner of articulation

  • Glide

    tongue glides from one location to another

    boyish; shower


  • Prepare the following for next class meeting:

  • Chart P. 54, Examples pp. 45-47

    Know the symbols and the three-part description of sounds they represent

  • Ex. 3.6 - due Mar 5

    • Homework counts 10 pts on 2nd Midterm

2 vowels
2. Vowels*

  • Vowels are the nuclei of syllables

    boat; dog; cow

We can describe vowels in three different ways
We can describe vowels in three different ways:

(see chart p. 57)

  • Tongue height* (high or low);

    /a/, /i/,

    /a/, /u/


  • Tongue position – front or back*

    /i/ - /u/

    /o/ - /e/


  • Lips rounded or unrounded*

    /i/ - /u/

    /e/ - /o/


  • Tongue shifts from one vowel position to another to articulate diphthongs*






    [Note: Some Englishes from other regions posses different diphthongs]


  • Every language has a distinct set of language sounds

Study objectives
Study objectives

We are expected to be able to know

  • the phonetic symbol for each sound of English

  • the voicing

  • place of articulation

  • manner of articulation

    for each English sound

Study objectives1
Study objectives

  • *Three part description of consonants

Study objectives2
Study objectives

  • *Three part description of vowels:

    tongue height, tongue position, and roundedness

    • disregard ‘lax’ and ‘tense’

Study objectives3
Study objectives

  • This knowledge of speech mechanics and the standard manner of transcribing speech provides the foundation for all of our subsequent study of language and linguistics