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This document represents what is a cancer and how you can identify the type of cancer.
Also the basic causes and prevention of the cancer.
See related : http://www.healthkumbh.com
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What Is Cancer? • Cancer is uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
Size of cancer cells: One million cancer cells = head of a pin One billion cancer cells = a small grape 230 = 1,073,741,824 = 1 billion cells Growth of Cancer Cells • Cancer cells reproduce every 2-6 weeks. 2-6 weeks 2-6 weeks 2-6 weeks
Signs and Symptoms of Cancer • Change in bowel habits or bladder functions • Sores that do not heal • Unusual bleeding or discharge • Lumps or thickening of breast or other parts of the body • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing • Recent change in wart or mole • Persistent coughing or hoarseness
What Causes Cancer? Family History Lifestyle Environment
Lifestyle Risks Unprotected exposure to t he sun, (UV) rays Obesity/Lack of exercise Smoking Diet high fat and low in fruits and vegetables
Environmental Risks • Second hand smoke • Air pollution • Industrial pollution • Chemical exposures
Inherited Risks • Less than 15% of cancers are inherited • Gene mutations are linked to some inherited cancers • Cancers that may be caused by inherited gene mutations are: • Colon cancer • Breast cancer • Ovarian • Prostate cancer • Skin cancer
Colon Cancer • Most colon cancers start as a polyp • Removing polyps can prevent colon cancer • A polyp • Advanced bleeding cancer
Colon Cancer Screening Guidelines • Age of 50 and older; younger if there is a family history • Yearly fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or • Flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years or • Yearly FOBT and sigmoidoscopy every 5 years or • Double-contrast barium enema every 5 years or • Colonoscopy every 10 years
Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines • Yearly mammograms starting at age 40 and continuing for as long as a woman is in good health. • Clinical breast exams (CBE) should be part of a periodic health exam, about every three years. • Women should report any breast change promptly to their health care providers. Breast self exam (BSE) is an option for women. • Women at increased risk (e.g., family history, genetic tendency, past breast cancer ) should know benefits and limitations of starting mammography screening earlier, having additional tests (e.g., breast ultrasound or MRI) • Know myths and facts about breast cancer
Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines • Annual pap testing should begin with the onset of sexual activity or at age 18 • Investigate pros & cons of new HPV vaccine • Pap testing should continue less frequently at the discretion of the medical provider and patient after three or more annual tests have been normal
Prostate Cancer Screening Guidelines • Men should speak to their doctor about the pros and cons of prostate cancer screening • Both prostate specific antigen (PSA) and digital rectal examinations (DRE) are recommended for men over 50 and who choose to undergo screening for prostate cancer
Testicular Cancer Screening Guidelines • Doctors agree that examination of a man’s testicles is an important part of a general physical exam. It is recommended that a testicular exam be conducted during routine cancer-related checkups. • It is believed that it is important to make men aware of testicular cancer and that any unusual mass should be evaluated by a health care provider immediately.
Skin Cancer • The ABCD’s of melanoma (skin cancer): • Asymmetry: one half is not like the other • Border: the edges are jagged or irregular • Color: the color is varied, tan, red, black etc • Diameter: the diameter is larger than 8mm (the top of a pencil eraser A B C D
Skin Cancer Prevention • It is important to: • Protect your skin with hats, long sleeves and sunscreen • Do a self examination of your skin monthly • Become familiar with any moles, freckles or other abnormalities on your skin • Check for changes once a month. Show any suspicious or changing areas to your health care provider.
Good News! Other Ways to Reduce the Risks of Developing Cancer…
Avoid Smoking or Chewing Tobacco • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the US • Second hand smoke affects everyone
Fruits and Vegetables Decrease Cancer Risks • Cancer rates could decline by up to 20% if everyone consumed 5 fruits and vegetables a day!* • Cancer fighting substances: • Antioxidants • Dietary fiber • Carotenoids • Flavenoids
Be Active…Often • Exercise for 30 minutes or more at least 4 days a week.