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Sex dependent risk factors of obesity in women. Candice Bolling, PA-S Advisor, Eileen VanDyke MPS, PA-C. Outline. Introduction Menstrual cycle phenomenology Fat ingestion Post-partum weight retention Leptin Conclusion. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/papers/st37/stat37.pdf.

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Sex dependent risk factors of obesity in women


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    1. Sex dependent risk factors of obesity in women Candice Bolling, PA-S Advisor, Eileen VanDyke MPS, PA-C

    2. Outline • Introduction • Menstrual cycle phenomenology • Fat ingestion • Post-partum weight retention • Leptin • Conclusion

    3. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/papers/st37/stat37.pdf

    4. http://www.4woman.gov/pub/steps/Obesity.htm

    5. Outline • Introduction • Menstrual cycle phenomenology • Fat ingestion • Post-partum weight retention • Leptin • Conclusion

    6. www.wisc.edu/ansci_repro/lec/lec/11/menstural.jpg

    7. Outline • Introduction • Menstrual cycle phenomenology • Fat ingestion • Post-partum weight retention • Leptin • Conclusion

    8. Fat Ingestion • More pronounced in mice • Activational vs. organizational • Testosterone increases feeding • Frequency • Meal Size

    9. Outline • Introduction • Menstrual cycle phenomenology • Fat ingestion • Post-partum weight retention • Leptin • Conclusion

    10. Post Partum Weight Retention • Average of .5-2.4 kg retained • Adolescents and African American women • Weight gain • Snacking • Decreased exercise • Smoking • Weight prior • Timing important http://www.womenatthesummit.com/1039amazing.jpg

    11. Outline • Introduction • Menstrual cycle phenomenology • Fat ingestion • Post-partum weight retention • Leptin • Conclusion

    12. Leptin • Hormone excreted by white adipose cells • Females proportionately higher • Feedback to hypothalamus • Many other effects http://www-graphics.stanford.edu/~liyiwei/project/fun/mouse_fat.html

    13. Leptin • Female vs. Male • Connected to HPG axis • Feedback system relating energy stores • Estrogen stimulates leptin secretion • Proves adipose tissue is not inert

    14. Leptin • Evolutionary pressures • Female fat storage • Energy hoarding • Males increase fitness by: strength, agility, and aggression http://www.3dchem.com/molecules.asp?ID=154#

    15. Outline • Introduction • Menstrual cycle phenomenology • Fat ingestion • Post-partum weight retention • Leptin • Conclusion

    16. Conclusion • Female specific risk factors • More work in areas of: • Eating patterns • Ovulatory patterns • Leptin • Resist extrapolation http://www.saludparalagente.org/graphics/female_symbol.jpg

    17. Bibliography • Ahmed, M, Ong, K, Morrell, D, Cox, L, Drayer, N, Perry, L, et. al. Longitudinal study of leptin concentrations during puberty: sex differences and relationship to changes in body composition. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84(3): 899-905. • America’s health: state health rankings. United Health Foundation. 2004. Accessed October 5, 2005. Available from: http://www.unitedhealthfoundation.org/shr2004/components/obesity.html. • Casabiell, X, Pineiro, V, Vega, F, De la Crus, L, Dieguez, C, Casanueva, F. Leptin, reproduction, and sex steriods. Pituitary. 2001; 4: 93-99. • Cholesterol Levels. American Heart Association. 2005. Accessed October 24, 2005. Available from: http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=987. • Combs, T, Berg, A, Rajala, M, Klebanov, S, Iyengar, P, Jimenez-Chillaron, J, et. al. Sexual differentiation, pregnancy, calorie restriction, and agin affect the adipocyte-specific secretory protein adiponectin. Diabetes. 2003. 52; 268-276. • Cnop, M, Havel, P, Utzschneider, K, Carr, D, Sinha, M, Boyko, E, et. al. Relationship of adiponectin to body fat distribution, insulin sensitivity and plasma lipoproteins: evidence for independent roles of age and sex. Diabetologia. 2003; 46: 459-469. • Fahim A, Byron WB, JR, Lamendola C, McLaughlin T, Reaven GM. Relationship between obesity, insulin resistance, and coronary heart disease risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002; 40 (5): 937-943. • Geary, N. Is the control of fat ingestion sexually differentiated? Physiol Behav. 2004; (83): 659-671. • Gui, Y, Silha, J, Murphy, L. Sexual dimorphism and regulation of resistin, adiponectin, and leptin expression in the mouse. Obes Res. 2004; 12 (9): 1481-1490. • Health Facts: Sex differences in obesity. Womens’ Health Research. 2005. Accessed October 5, 2005. Available from: www.womenshealthresearch.gor/hs/facts_obesity.htm. • Hellstrom, L, Wahrenberg, H, Hruska, K, Reynisdottir, S, Arner, P. Mechanisms behind gender differences in dirculating leptin levels. J Int Med. 2000; 247: 457-462. • Humphrey, LL, Chan, B, Sox, HC. Postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy. Ann Intern Med.2003; 688-689.

    18. Bibliography • Kennedy, A, Gettys, T, Watson, P, Wallace, P, Ganaway, E, Pan, Q, Garvey, W. The metabolic significance of leptin in humans: gender-based differences in relationship to adiposity, insulin sensitivity, and energy expenditure. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82(4): 1293-1300. • Licinio, J., Negrao, A., Mantzoros, C., Kaklamani, V., Wong, M., Bongiorno, P., et. al. Sex differences in circulating human leptin pulse amplitude: Clinical Implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998; 83(11): 4140-4147. • Lovejoy, JC. The influence of sex hormones on obesity across the remale life span. J Women Health. 1998; 7(10): 1247-1255. • Marroquin, OC, Kip, KE, Kelley, DE, Johnson, BD, Shaw, LJ, Merz, NB, et. al. Metabolic Syndrome modifies the cardiovascular risk associated with angiographic coronary artery disease in women. Circulation. 2004; 109: 714-721. • Mayes, J, Watson, G. Direct effects of sex steroid hormones on adipose tissues and obesity. Obes Rev. 2004; 5: 197-216. • Mercuro, G, Vitale, C, Fini, M, Zoncu, S, Leonardo, F, Rosano, G. Lipid profiles and endothelial function with low-dose hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women at risk for coronary artery disease: a randomized trial. Int J Cardiol. 2003; 89, 257-265. • Modena, MG. Acute Myocardial Infarction- Are Women Different? Int J Clin Pract. 2005; 59(1), 2-5. • Nishizawa, H, Shimomura, I, Kishida, K, Maeda, N, Kuriyama, H, Nagaretani, H, et. al. Androgens decrease plasma adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipocyte-derived protein. Diabetes. 2002; 51: 2734-2742. • Ostlund, R, Yang, J, Klein, S, Gingerish, R. Relation between plasma leptin concentration and body fat, gender, diet, age, and metabolic covariates. J Clin Endocrinol and Metab. 1996; 81(11), 3909-3013. • Rosenbaum, M, Leibel, R. Role of gonadal steroids in the sexual dimorphisms in body composition and circulating concentrations of leptin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999; 84(6): 1784-1789. • Zieba, D, Amstalden, M, Wiliams, G. Regulatory roles of leptin in reproduction and metabolism: a comparative review. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2005; 29: 166-185. • Rossum, E, Nicklas, B, Dennis, K, Berman, D, Goldberg, A. Leptin responses to weight loss in postmenopausal women: relationship to sex-hormone binding globulin and visceral obesity. Obes Res. 2000; 8(1): 29-35. • Solomon, H. Weight loss: managing the health of the overweight woman. Harvard Medical School. In press May 20, 2002.