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What You Will Do • Apply the biomechanical principle of force to walking and jogging. • Describe examples of unsafe walking/jogging technique. • Identify common fitness-related injuries. • Explain how to treat and prevent common fitness injuries.
biomechanics tendons ligaments cartilage shinsplint strain sprain RICE stress fracture Terms to Know
Preventing Fitness Injuries Have you ever experienced soreness after a workout? There are actions you can take to relieve the discomfort and avoid common fitness-related injuries.
Term to Know Biomechanics The study and the application of principles of physics to human motion. Biomechanics The laws of biomechanics dictate that when you jog slowly, your foot strikes the ground with a force that is three times your body weight.
Biomechanics These tips will help you walk and jog safely and efficiently from a biomechanical standpoint: • Start slowly. Follow the recommendations for efficient, gentle walking and jogging. • Breathe deeply through your nose and mouth, rather than through your nose only. • Relax your fingers, hands, arms, shoulders, neck, and jaw. • Bend your arms at the elbows at an angle of about 90 degrees. • Swing your arms straight forward and back instead of across your body.
Biomechanics These tips will help you walk and jog safely and efficiently from a biomechanical standpoint. • Stand upright. • Hold your head up, and minimize your head motion. • Develop a smooth, even stride that feels natural and comfortable to you. • When your foot strikes the ground, it should land on the heel. • Try to point your toes straight ahead as your heel strikes the ground. Push off on the ball of your foot. • Do not pound noisily as you walk or jog.
Biomechanics These tips will help you walk and jog safely and efficiently from a biomechanical standpoint. • Avoid slapping your feet and excessive bouncing. • Try to walk or jog on soft surface, such as a dirt road, track, or grassy area, as compared to a concrete or asphalt surface. • Avoid hilly surfaces, because they can place unusual stress on your muscles and joints.
Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Pay close attention to any injury and seek medical attention if the injury interferes with your ability to perform tasks and activities.
Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment • Skin injuries • Muscle injuries • Connective tissue injuries The most common types of fitness injuries are:
Terms to Know Tendons Bands of connective tissue that connect muscles to bones. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Connective tissue is the soft material that helps hold the soft material that helps hold bones and joints of the body in place. Tendons are one type of connective tissue.
Terms to Know Ligaments Bands of tissue that connect bone to bone and limit the movement of joints Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A second type of connective tissue is ligaments.
Terms to Know Cartilage The tissue that surrounds the ends of bones at a joint to prevent the bones from rubbing against each other. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A third type of connective tissue is cartilage.
Terms to Know Shinsplints Inflammation of a tendon or muscle in the leg. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment Shinsplints are a type of connective tissue injury that often results from overuse.
Terms to Know Strain A pull or rip in a muscle or tendon. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A strain is a type of connective tissue injury that can result from insufficient warm-up, lack of flexibility, or overuse.
Terms to Know Sprain A tear of a ligament. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A sprain is a type of connective tissue injury that can result from a sudden twisting force to a joint.
Terms to Know RICE A first-aid procedure for strains and sprains that become swollen. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment In the event of a strain or sprain, you should immediately use the RICE formula.
Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment R est the injured area. I ce the area to reduce swelling. C ompress the area by wrapping it in an elastic bandage. E levate, or raise the body part.
Term to Know Stress fracture A break in the bone caused by overuse. Common Fitness Injuries and Treatment A small crack in a bone will turn into a stress fracture. Injuries to bones are serious and require medical care.
Preventing Injuries To prevent or safely treat common injuries, follow these guidelines: Pay attention to your body. If you feel unusually sore or fatigued, postpone activity or exercise until you feel better. Include a proper warm-up and cooldown in your personal fitness program. Monitor the frequency, intensity, time, and type (FITT) of your exercise closely. Progress slowly but steadily. If you run or walk along busy streets, always face oncoming traffic. Wear reflective clothing during night physical activities or exercise, such as walking or jogging. Use proper safety equipment for activities with a higher injury risk, such as skateboarding, snowboarding, in-line skating, and cycling. Always seek out proper medical advice when you have an injury.
Lesson 4 Review Reviewing Facts and Vocabulary 1. Vocabulary Biomechanics is the application of principles of physics to human motion. 2. Vocabulary Rest; Ice; Compress; Elevate. 3. Recall Three types of connective tissue are tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. Injuries include shinsplints, strains, and sprains. • Vocabulary Define biomechanics. • Vocabulary What do the letters in RICE stand for? • Recall What are the three types of connective tissue? What are two common connective tissue injuries?
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