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Spring 2014

Spring 2014

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Spring 2014

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Presentation Transcript

  1. Spring 2014 • Mrs. Ramsey

  2. What to expect… • What is the difference between weather and climate? • What causes storms? • How can you predict what the weather will be like? • What role does our atmosphere play in Earth’s ecology? • What makes up the solar system?

  3. Ever seen this?

  4. Or this?

  5. How about this one?

  6. Ready to discover?

  7. Before we begin… • We are all curious about the changing weather, but why would it be helpful to predict the weather? • What is the first step in the scientific process? • How would this correspond with this science? • First, we need to understand: • Weather is tied directly to Earth’s Systems • We are looking at a global picture so geography is necessary

  8. What to expect… • We are going to look at the various elements of weather in this class. What causes the storm? Where does wind come from? Why does it rain? Why does it it snow? • The study of weather is called meteorology. • The term “meteorology” comes from the Greek word “meteoron” which means “from the sky”

  9. Tools of the trade • Anemometer- measures wind speed • Weather vane – measures wind direction • Thermometer- measures air temperature • Barometer- measures air pressure • Hygrometer – measures air moisture • Satellites – reports large scale cloud movement • Communication networks- helps to make meteorology maps

  10. Short History of Meteorology • Early Meteorology – Pictures and carvings indicated that early inhabitants were well aware of their surroundings • Early man believed that bad weather was caused by angry Gods. They were worshiped in hope of bringing better weather. • Bores – Greek god of the north wind • Ra – Egyptian god of the sun • Thor – Norse god of thunder

  11. Greek scholars were some of the first in Western civilization to make observations about weather • Two prominent Greek philosophers emerged • 1. Aristotle – (384 -322BC) one of the most influential thinkers of the ancient world, wrote the oldest text on meteorology, “The Meteorologica” • Hippocrates – (460 – 377 BC) Known as the Father of Modern Medicine, his contributions explained how the environment effected the health of people

  12. By 100 AD the Romans had conquered Greece and scientific investigation had ceased. • The two notable exceptions were Ptolemy and Seneca. • 1. Ptolemy – Claudius Ptolemaeus (85 – 165 AD) made weather predictions based on astronomical predictions. He wrote about planetary motion, where the sun and all the planets revolved around the Earth. • 2. Seneca – (2-65 AD) wrote a handbook that contradicted many of Aristotle’s earlier findings.

  13. By 1100 AD scientific investigation & theory slowly started to re-merged • This was a difficult time for scholars as scientific findings contradicted the teachings of the Church, and crimes against the Church were punishable by death. • The Church’s teachings prevailed until the Scientific Revolution (1500 – 1900 AD) • Storms were Satan's doing • Video on Revolution • 1500 – Italy, Leonardo DaVinci (1452 – 1519) improved the hygrometer, described an anemometer.

  14. 1485 – As the Renaissance begins, weather “science” and forecasting were dominated by astrology and weather signs dating back to the Greeks, little change from the Middle Ages until the age of instrumentation begins in the 17th century. • The term “meteors” is used for anything falling from or crossing the sky other than planets and stars. “Meteor” is a direct transliteration from the Greek meaning “something raised up” and thus different from the modern use of “meteor” in the astronomical sense.

  15. Birth of a Science • 1639 – Italy, BenedettoCastelli (1578 – 1643) first scientific rain measurement in Europe. • 1640 – René Descartes (1596 – 1650). Water vapor a distinct substance in the air. Developed analytic geometry and developed much of calculus. • 1643 – Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647)Invented the barometer. • 1644 - First weather records made in America by Reverend John Campanius at Swedes’ Fort near Wilmington, DE • 1648 - Blaise Pascal (1623 – 1662), along with Descartes carried a barometer carried up Puy-de-Dôme and demonstrated at inmospheric pressure decrease with • creasing altitude.

  16. 1662 – Robert Boyle (1627-1691) developed gas law relating pressure and volume. • 1663 – Robert Hooke (1635 – 1703) Method for Making a History of Weather treated the issues of standardization and recording observations. (left) • 1664 – Paris, formal weather observations begin • 1665 – Robert Hooke fixed 0o as the freezing point of water • 1670 - First mercury in glass thermometer. • 1686 – England, Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742) published the first comprehensive map of trade winds. He is the comet guy and the first to connect earth’s general circulation with the distribution of solar heating .

  17. 1710 – Fahrenheit temperature scale, Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1668 – 1736) • 1742 – Sweden, Centigrade temperature scale, Anders Celsius (1701 – 1744) • 1749 Scotland, Alexander Wilson (1766 – 1813) and student Thomas Melville, used kites for upper air measurements, a thermometer carried to 3000 ft. • 1802 – John Dalton’s (1766-1844) Law of Partial Pressures, he kept a weather diary • 1835 – Paris, GaspardGustave de Coriolis (1792 – 1843), mathematically defined the coriolis effect i.e. how to modify Newton’s equations of motion for a rotating frame of reference. • 1845 – Telegraph first available to public.

  18. 1870 - U.S. Weather Bureau established. • 1870 – Feb 9, weather warning system under the U.S. Army Signal Corps • 1886 – the word tornado was banned from U.S. forecasts to avoid panic…i.e. Katie Horner • 1887 – Heinrich Hertz (1857 – 1894) – experimented with radio waves, he discovered some things reflected radio waves, he measured speed of the waves, this eventually led directly to the discovery of radar.

  19. 1896, May 27 – U.S. Weather Bureau forecast calls for “destructive local storms”. That day a killer tornado hit St. Louis. • 1898 – regular kite observations begin by the U.S. Weather Bureau, end 1933. (We now use balloons) • 1913 – ozone layer discovered • Late - 1930's - Weather radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) developed. • 1941 – Pilots flying westward over the Pacific encounter 300 mph (jet streams) • 1941 August 1 – First of the Daily Weather Map series with fronts and air masses

  20. Quick Review Quiz- Matching • __1. weather vane • __2. thermometer • __3. barometer • __4. anemometer • __5. hygrometer • __6. satellites • __7. communication networks • (A) measures wind speed • (B) measures air temp. • (C) measures air moisture • (D) measures wind direction • (E) reports large scale cloud movement • (F) helps meteorologists make maps • (G) measures air pressure

  21. Answers… • 1. d • 2. b • 3. g • 4. a • 5. c • 6. e • 7. f • Grade and then I’ll collect your scores