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The Effects of Vision on Learning

The Effects of Vision on Learning

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The Effects of Vision on Learning

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  1. The Effects of Vision on Learning Charla Bowman and Stephanie Cain

  2. What is vision? “Vision is more than the limited concept of sight measured in terms of visual acuity. Vision is the process of deriving meaning from what is seen. It involves fixation and eye movement abilities, accommodation (eye focusing), convergence (eye aiming), eye-hand coordination, visual perception and visual-motor integration.” -Optometrists’ Network

  3. Snellen Test • Basic acuity test • Only checks visual acuity at a distance • Lacks detection of many other problems • Eye-teaming • Focusing • Depth perception • Only detects one in nine of the main learning related vision problems

  4. Most Frequent Undetected Problems Include: • Delayed or incomplete vision development • Focusing and eye-teaming problems • Eye movement control and visual tracking • Amblyopia (“Lazy Eye”) and/or Strabismus (“Wandering Eye”) • Visual perception and visual information processing

  5. Visual Perception and Visual Information Processing • Form discrimination • Spatial relations • Figure ground • Visual closure • Form Constancy • Visual memory

  6. Avoidance behaviors • Voluntary avoidance of affected tasks • Appear “lazy” • Short attention span • Behavior problems & tantrums • Confrontations with authority • Low self-esteem

  7. Physical Adaptations • Postural changes • Close reading distance • Head movements • Closing or covering one eye • Transient Blurring • Permanent Blurring (myopia)

  8. Other related cues • Headaches • Squinting • Jerky eye movements • Frequent loss of place when reading • Omits or inserts letters or words • Failure to recognize same word in the next sentence

  9. Treatment • Stress-Relieving Lens Therapy • Optometric Vision Therapy

  10. What is Vision Therapy? • “Physical therapy” for the eyes and the brain • Involves exercises with doctor and at home • Works to help problems that lenses alone can’t fix • http://www.children-special-needs.org/vision_therapy/optometric_vision_therapy.html • http://www.visiontherapy.org/

  11. Misdiagnosis as ADD? • Many symptoms of vision problems are the same as those exhibited by children with ADD, ADHD, and dyslexia • http://www.pavevision.org/add.htm

  12. Research on vision learning differences conducted by: • O. Keene Clay, OD, FCOVD • David Dunning, OD, MA • Michael Egger, OD, FCOVD • Tole Greenstein, OD, FCOVD • Sandra Landis, OD, FCOVD • William Ludlam, OD, FAAO • Carol Marusich, OD, MS, FCOVD • Jesse Miller, OD, FCOVD

  13. Bibliography • Optometrists Network, April 27, 2006 • http://www.children-special-needs.org/vision_therapy/optometric_vision_therapy.html • http://www.visiontherapy.com • http://www.vision3d.com • Parents Active for Vision Education, April 27, 2006 • http://www.pavevision.org • College of Optometrists in Vision Development, April 27, 2006 • http://www.covd.org • Interview with Cary McDonald, April 25, 2006 • Oregon Optometric Physicians Association, The Effects of Vision on Learning and School Performance: Milwaukie, OR, 1986.